Monday, February 22, 2010


  • Tolkappiam is the Tamil Grammar produced during the Second Tamil Sangam (Kuttam) at Kuvattapuram. It was authored by Tolkappiyar. Kuvattapuram is considered submerged in the sea. The place is mentioned in Silapaddikaram and Satalpuram.

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  • Agastyam was a book of First Tamil Sangam (Kuttam) Literature produced at Ten Madurai. It was probably authored by Agastya. The book is lost. There are references to this book in the latter Sangam literature.

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    Saturday, February 6, 2010


    Pindkara was a  tax which was collected jointly from a village during Mauryan times. Pindkara was one of the four taxes which were being collected since the days of Mahajanapada. Initially it was a voluntary contribution in form of a fistful grain at a yagya. However, this tax has not been mentioned in the post Mauryan period or Gupta period. Hence, it was collected upto Mauryan period. But it was never imposed on an individual. It was collected from a village as a whole.

    For verification and further elaboration: Check Public finance in Ancient India By K. R. Sarkar 

    Online Source:

    Itihasik Khoj

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