Monday, March 23, 2009

Jullundur Mutiny 1920

Jullunder Mutiny (Jalandhar Mutiny): 1920


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Indian Independence Committee 1915

Indian Independence Committee 1915
The Indian Independence Committee was formed by Indian revolutionaries who were working for the independence of India from the foreign countries. It was formed in 1915 in Berlin when the World War First was going on. It was formed to make arrangements to help the revolutionaries within India to fight the British administration. It is believed that it was being supported by German foreign office under the ‘Zimmerman Plan’. The leading members of the committee was Viendranath Chattopadhyay (Chatto), Bhupen Dutta, Lala Har Dayal Verma and others. It is more popular as Berlin Committee of Indian Independence in history text books in India.

The historians evaluate the forming of the Indian Independence Committee as one of the two main responses of the Indians patriots. In this case, it was the response of the revolutionaries for whom the starting of World War had given an opportunity to push out Britain out India. The second response was represented by Home Rule Movement, which ultimately favoured helping the British efforts in the world war and then latter use it for negotiation for getting political rights for Indians within India. In case of the activities of the revolutionaries with operational centre in foreign countries, they are generally shown as conspiracies. However, the Indian historians have not gone beyond that. After suggesting that they were part of some conspiracy, they have not taken conspiracy theories thesis to their logical conclusions. No doubt, they can not escape the responsibility of suggesting that though there had been conspiracies yet such acts had also contributed to the Indian freedom struggle. As a result apart from Indian Independence Committee fact, the Ghadrites, the Hindu Conspiracy Case 1918, Provincial Government of Free India at Kabul etc are all treated in that manner.


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Sunday, March 22, 2009

Virendranath Chattopadhay

Virendranath Chattopadhay
Virendranath Chattopadhay was an Indian Revolutionary who made Berlin as a base of his activities in 1909. He also published the journal 'Talvar'. He was one of the first lot of Indian communist who became follower of Marxism after the October Revolution of Russia.


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Indian Sociologist


Indian Sociologist
Indian Sociologist was a journal started by Shyamji Krishanvarma.




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Photograph Source: Wikipedia


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Shyamji Krishnavarma

Shyamji Krishnavarma
Shyamji Krishnavarma undertook his freedom struggle against the colonial rule of Britain over India while staying in London. He basically advocated a theory of passive resistance. However, he was surrounded by or got associated with such young people from India who preferred radical means of removing Britain from India.

Shimaji Krishnavarma started a journal called Indian Sociologist. He also established a centre for Indian students which was called India House. He also started the Indian Home Rule Society. V. D. Savarkar and Madanlal Dhingra were also assocaited with India House along with other leading revolutionary Indians. However, in later studies, the act of Madanlal Dhingra of klleing Curzon Wyllie an officer who had worked in Amritsar, had been shown to have taken place under influence of drugs and thereby project the activities promoted under Shyamji Krishnavarma in dark colours.


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Sachindranath Sanyal

Sachindranath Sanyal (Sachindra Nath Sanyal)
Sachindranath Sanyal was an Indian revolutionary who fought against the colonial rule of Britain over India. He organized secret revolutionary associations over North India with centres in Punjab, Delhi and United Province. He was able to establish contacts with foreign countries for his activities. He worked with Rashbehari Bose. He was believed to be associated with the bombing of the convy of Viceroy Hardinge when he was entering the new Capital at Delhi on December 23, 1912.


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Rashbehari Bose

Rashbehari Bose:
Rashbehari Bose was the Indian revolutionary who fought against the colonial rule of Britain in India. He organized secret revolutionary societies which had even international contacts. His activities were spread over Northern India covering Punjab, Delhi and United Province. He was associated with Sachindranath Sanyal in such activities. He was believed to be associated with the bombing of the convy of Viceroy Hardinge when he was entering the new Capital at Delhi on December 23, 1912.



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Swadeshi Dacoities

Swadeshi Dacoities:
'Swadeshi Dacoities' is a phrase coined by Historians working on Indian history on the period of freedom struggle of India against the Imperial rule of Britain.

The historians who prefer to use this term refer under it to those activities of revolutionaries which included the fire arms methodology against the British rule in India. Under this phrase, the assassinations of British and Indian officials, traitors to the cause of the freedom struggle, the activities of looting of government treasuries for raising funds for the activities of the movement, are covered.

The term is mainly made popular by Marxist historians. The use of arms was part of the technique of the communist for bringing the revolution. Therefore, it is the evaluation of Indian History facts from ideological perspective and eye glasses of pure Marxist theorists who also write history. They have started using term 'terrorism' for the activities performed by the Indian nationalist who fought for the freedom of their motherland from the colonial rule of Britain.

It can be at the best called a historian's construct to build a historic myth. Such an evaluation is subjected to open criticism and discouraged.



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Ali Brothers

Ali Brothers:
Ali Brothers in Indian history for the Freedom Struggle period refers to Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. They were from United Province. They promoted radical views in Muslim League. They were identified with the Young Party of Muslim League which dominated the Muslim League from 1912. They promoted militant methodology to remove the Imperial rule of Britain over India. They favoured a workable accommodation with nationalist Hindus. They worked for pan-Islamic Movement. They started Khilafat Movement.



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Friday, March 20, 2009

Mohsin-ul-Mulk

Mohsin-ul-Mulk



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Shimla Deputation 1906

Shimla Depatation 1906:

On October 1, 1906, a group of Muslim representatives of Muslim elite of United Province and specifically from Aligarh, met the Viceroy Minto at Shimla. They sought separate electorates and representation in excess of numerical strength in view of their loyalty towards the defence of the Crown Empire in India.

Soon afterwards, in the month of December 1906, Muslim League was founded by Salimulla and the members of the deputation was found dominating the working of the Muslim League.



Special Note: Some of the books in India identify Shimla Deputation with Muslim League deputation. It is not correct to present it in that manner. It is important to note that when the deputation met, there was no Muslim League party in existence as such. The deputation met in June 1906. The party was formed in December 1906.



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Servants of India Soceity

Servants of India Society:
Servants of India Society was launched by Gopal Krishan Gokhle, the moderate leader of Congress in June 1905. It aimed at working on the principles of self-sacrifice, moral purity and full time national work.

It had great relevance for the time when it was formed. It was formed when the extremist group in the Congress was trying to adopt their ways in the working of the Inadian National Congress. Secondly, it was felt that the Congress should continue to work throughout the year. The Society was formed by the most dominating person of the Congress of that time. It tried to promote the moderate methods in the working of the Congress.



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Thursday, March 19, 2009

Sunday, March 15, 2009

Prafulla Chaki

Prafulla Chaki



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Kshudiram Basu

Kshudiram Basu



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Hemchandra Kanungo

Hemchandra Kanugo: He was probably the first revolutionary who went abroad to get military and political training. (Sumit Sarkar) He returned in January 1908 and started a bomb factory in Maniktala near Calcutta. Brindrajumar Ghose was also associated with this activity. It was discovery of this factory which went to make the popular Calcutta Bomb Case.



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Wednesday, March 11, 2009

Satishchandra Mukherji


Satishchandra Mukherji (Satish Chandra Mukherjee):
He was the founder of the journal Dawn and Dawn Society. Dawn Society had played a seminal role in the national education movement which had developed along with Wang Bang Movement of 1905. The demand of national education was one of the response of the Indian nationalists against the colonial rule. It was accompanied by the movement of Swadeshi and boycott. Some of the scholars believe that it was mainly a result of Wang Bang movement. However, later, the nationalist responses of Wang Bang Movement excluding revolutionary approach became the core of Gandhian political struggle based on Satyagrah and Non-Violence against the colonial rule of Britain. Satish Chandra Mukherjee was highly impressed by the Non-violence movement. He remained associated with Mahatama Gandhi also.


Source: Photograph Source: Wikipedia Article.


External Links:Satish Chandra Mukherjee (Wikipedia Article)


Banglapedia Article: Satish Chandra Mukherjee

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Boycott of British Goods

Boycott of British Goods:

Boycott of British Goods was one of the major technique of protest invented by the Indians fighting against the imperial rule of Britain during their freedom struggle for freedom. It was first suggested in a weekly Sanjivani on July 13, 1905. The weekly Sanjivani was edited by Krishankumar Mitra at that time. It was later adopted by Congress on August 7, 1905 as one the technique to protest against the partition of Bengal which was scheduled to take place on October 16, 1905. It was the most effective technique of Wang Bang movement. It had full support of leaders like Sunrendranath Banerji. It was adopted by other Moderate leaders in the Congress who was strongly against any unconstitutional mean of protest. Soon this approach of freedom fighters asking abrogation of Bengal partition by hitting at the purse at Manchester, graduated at full fledged demand of Swaraj in writings of leaders like Aurbindo Ghosh. It is considered as the maturing of the Indian nationalism by a set of scholars who oppose the theory of Cambridge School of historian (Pro-Imperialistic theory of the aim of civilizing the world by the Christian world). It was definitely a strong statement which had added a practical (Theoretical economic theory had developed by Dadabhai Naoroji in 1870s.) economic dimension to the freedom struggle of India. Later it was adopted by Mohandass Karamchand Gandhi as an important part of political technique based on satyagraha.


Source:
Sarkar, Sumit. Modern India 1885-1947, Macmillan, Madras, 1989. SBN 033390 425 7


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Sunday, March 8, 2009

Barindrakumar Ghosh

Barinderkumar Ghosh:
Barinderkumar Ghosh was the elder brother of Aurobindo Ghosh. He founded Samiti in 1902 in Calcutta. Promotha Mitter and Jatindranath Banerji were other two co-founders of the Samiti. In April 1906, Barindra started Yugantar, a weekly, in the month of April 1906. He was assisted by Bhupendranath Dutta in the editorial board of the weekly.



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Jatindranath Banerji

Jatindranath Banerji:
Jatindranath Banerji was the the founder of the Anushilan Samiti in Calcutta. He founded the Samiti in 1902 along with Promotha Mitter and Barindrakumar Ghosh. He was considered as the representative of Aurobindo Ghosh. Aurobindo Ghosh was a Diwan in Baroda at the time and considered as a brain behind this movement.



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Promotha Mitter

Promotha Mitter:
He was the founder of Anushilan Samiti, the first revolutionary group to be founded in Calcutta. The associates of Promotha Mitter in this activity was Jatindranath Banerji and Barindrakumar Ghosh.



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Jnanendranath Basu

Jnanendranath Basu
He started the first revolutionary group in Midnapur in 1902. Such revolutionary groups were called Samiti in Bengal



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Jatindranath Bandopadhyay

Jatindranath Bandopadhyay



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Sufi Amba Parsad

Sufi Amba Parsad



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Lal Chand 'Falak'

Lal Chand 'Falak'



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Pandit (Sir) Sunder Lal Advocate

Pandit (Sir) Sunder Lal Advocate

Saturday, March 7, 2009

Dr Shyama Prasad Mookerjee

Dr Shyama Prasad Mookerjee


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Professor MEGHNAD SAHA

Professor MEGHNAD SAHA


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Officers Behind Bengal Partition in 1905

Officers Behind Bengal Partition in 1905.

There were four main British Officers who undertook the partition of Bengal.


They were William Ward, Andrew Fraser, H. H. Risley and Lord Curzon.


William Ward was the Chief Commissioner of Assam who moved the proposal of attaching Chittagong Division, Dacca and Mymensingh to Assam in 1896-97.


Andrew Fraser as the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal repeated the proposal of William Ward in note of March 28, 1903.


Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India of the time, included the note in his minute pm territorial redistribution in India on June 1, 1903.


Home Secretary H. H. Risley announced the partition of Bengal on December 3, 1903 in his letter to Lord Curzon.


Relief of Bengal and Improvement of Assam were the two benefits forwarded in the official version on the causes and need of the partition of Bengal.

The formal announcement of the partition of Bengal was made on July 19, 1905.






Source:
Sarkar, Sumit. Modern Indian 1885-1947, Macmillan, Madras, 1983, pp. 106.




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Asutosh Mukerji

Asutosh Mukerji:
Asutosh Mukherjee did his post graduation in Mathematics from Calcutta University. He was imparted the doctorate in Law in 1894. He taught as a Professor of Law in 1898. He became a judge in Calcutta High Court in 1904. In 1906, he was appointed Vice Chancellor of Calcutta University. It was an educationalist that he left his impact on the Indian history.

He was the Vice Chancellor of Calcutta University. He was known to have brought around a sea change in the academic environment in Calcutta University which was then made to work as postgraduate teaching institution under the Universities Act of 1904. Under his visionary guidance, the Calcutta University was able to establish itself as an institution of par excellence.

Later his son, Shayama Prasad Mukherjee had also risen in public esteem by virtue of his personal achievements. Dr. Shayama Prasad Mukherjee who entered political life in 1926 as a Congress worker, later founded Bhartiya Jan Sangh in 1952.


Source:
Sarkar, Sumit. Modern Indian 1885-1947, Macmilan, Madras, 1983, pp. 105.


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March 8, 2009, 7. 40 AM. Added Details like qualification and relation with Dr. Shayama Prasad Mukherjee.



Gurudas Banerjee

Gurudas Banerjee was the only Indian member of the Universities Commission which introduced reforms in in September 1901 at Shimla during the tenure of Lord Curzon as the Viceroy of India. The Universities Act formed on the recommendation of the commission was passed in 1904.



Source:
Sarkar, Sumit. Modern Indian 1885-1947, Macmillan, Madras, 1983, pp. 105.



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Thursday, March 5, 2009

New Lamps for Old by Aurbindo Ghosh

New Lamps for Old by Aurbindo Ghosh.

It was a series of essays which appeared between 1893 and 1894. It were written by Aurbindo Ghosh. It mainly criticized the policies of Congress which it termed as full of mendicancy.

It adopted the class structure paradigm while criticised the moderate policies of Congress as being followed by Pherozeshah Mehta, Dadabhai Naoroji and Gopal Krishan Gokhle. It was considered as a harbringer of extremist approach in Congress policies and later the revolutionary trends in India in first decade of the twientieth century India.

Wednesday, March 4, 2009

Shells From the Sands of Bombay by Wacha

Shells From the Sands of Bombay by Wacha:
Shells From the Sands of Bombay had been written by Dinsha Edulji Wacha. The main title of the book is "Shells from the Sands of Bombay, Being My Recollections of Bombay: 1860-1875. It was published in 1920.



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Tuesday, March 3, 2009

Madras Mahajan Sabha

Madras Mahajan Sabha


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Poona Sarvajanik Sabha

Poona Sarvajanik Sabha


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Ananda Charlu

Ananda Charlu


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Dwarkanath Ganguli

Dwarkanath Ganguli


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Anandmohan Bose

Anandmohan Bose


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Manmohan Ghosh

Manmohan Ghosh



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Lalmohan Ghosh

Lalmohan Ghosh



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Bholanath Chandra

Bholanath Chandra



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Sunday, March 1, 2009

Girishchandra Ghosh

Girishchandra Ghosh


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Brojendranath De

Brojendranath De


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Dinabandhu Mitra

Dinabandhu Mitra


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Nabagopal Mitra

Nabagopal Mitra


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Rashid Ahmed Gangohi

Rashid Ahmed Gangohi


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Muhammad Qasim Nanawtawi

Muhammad Qasim Nanawtawi



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