Wednesday, August 12, 2009

Define Caste

Define Caste
The Sociologists define a caste as follows:
A caste is a hereditary, endogamous, usually localized group, having a traditional association with an occupation and a particular position in the local hierarchy of castes. The relations between castes are governed, among other things, by the concepts of pollution and purity, and generally, maximum commensality occurs within the caste.

On spatial level, a caste is usually segmented into several sub-castes and each sub-caste is endogamous. This segmentation is probably the result of a long historical process in which groups continually fissioned off. As a result of this long process of development there has come into existence several cognate groups usually found scattered over a limited geographical region, each of which retains a sense of identity as well as its linkage with other similar groups. Hence, a perception that a caste has its limited social boundaries is limited view meant for a particular time and place only. It, under historic impact, keeps changing the social boundaries and even the spatial spread through the process of historic fission.

Source:
Srinivas M. N., Caste in Modern India and other essays, 1962, Media Promoters and Publishers Pvt. Ltd. Bombay, pp 2,3. Chapter 1, Introduction.


Tuesday, August 11, 2009

Sanskritization

"The caste system is far from a rigid system in which the position of each component caste is fixed for all time. Movement has always been possible, and especially so in the middle regions of the hierarchy. A low caste was able, in a generation or two, to rise to a higher position in the hierarchy by adopting vegetarianism and teetotalism, and by Sanskritizing its ritual and pantheon. In short, it took over, as far as possible, the customs, rites, and beliefs of the Brahmins, and the adoption of the Brahminic way of life by a low caste seems to have been frequent, though theoretically forbidden. This process has been called -'Sanskritization'.”



Source:
Srinivas M. N., Caste in Modern India and other essays, 1962,Media Promoters and Publishers Pvt. Ltd. Bombay, pp 42. Chapter 2, A Note on Sanskritization and Westernization. Quoted by M. N. Srinivas from 'Religions and Society among the Coorgs of South India, Oxford, 1952, p.32.


Wednesday, June 17, 2009

Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha




Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha:
The Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha was founded by Swami Sahajananda Saraswati, a leading peasant leader of India.



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The Photograph of Swami Sahajananda Sarawati can be checked at South Asian Studies of South Asia Resources, University of Virginia Library


Monday, June 15, 2009

Punjab Riyasti Praja Mandal




Punjab Riyasti Praja Mandal
The Punjab Riyasti Praja Mandal was formed in July 1928 at Mansa under the guidance of Akali leader Karakh Singh while he was during the region of Patiala kingdom ruled at that time by Maharaja Bhupinder Singh.



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Butler Committee Report





Butler Committee Report
Butler Committee was headed by Harcourt Butler. It was appointed by Viceroy of India, Irwin. It reviewed the question of Paramountcy. The Princes of India wanted to review the issue of Paramountcy while bargaining for their participation in Round Table Conference where the British government wanted them to be. Butler concluded, "Paramoutcy must remain paramount."
The judgement of the committee was not in favour of the Council of Princes. However, the main fear of the Princes was that if the Dominion Status was imparted to India, then there could a central government dominated by the Congress members. However, later, as the talks progressed, the idea of Federal government at centre was favoured and the issue of Dominion Status was just made silent. The features which were suggested under the Federal Structure in India were such that the Princes did not have to fear the Congress majority control at centre level.



Source:
Photograph Source: Photograph accessed on June 16, 2009 at www.upgovernor.gov.in, ownership of the content Secretariat Rajbhavan Lucknow and maintained by NIC. (Copyright issue: The contents are at government of India site meant for information as well appropriate use. The appropriate link is given and acknowledged. Even if there is any objection, kindly place it in the comment section and email me quoting the approriate section and interpertation.)



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Photograph accessed on June 16, 2009 at www.upgovernor.gov.in, ownership of the content Secretariat Rajbhavan Lucknow and maintained by NIC



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Sunday, June 14, 2009

Delhi Statement




Delhi Statement:
Delhi Statement was issued by Gandhi on November 2, 1928.
In the statement it was sugested that the proposed conference which Simon Commission was expected to recommend, would discuss the features of Dominion Status. In the conference, the Congress delegates would have majority. The agenda of the conference would be to discuss a general amnesty and concilliation.
Gandhi met Irwin, the Viceroy of India  on November 23, 1928. The Viceroy rejected the offer given in 'Delhi Statement'.
Later, Gandhi signed Gandhi Irwin Pact in which the above offer were not taken up.



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Saturday, June 13, 2009

Hindustan Socialist Republican Army




Hindustan Socialist Republican Army:
Hindustan Socialist Republican Army was organized in September 1928. It was formed with the members of Hindustan Republic Association whose members were arrested after Kakori Train holdup in August 1925. It brought the members from different states on one single platform. The new members included the name of Bhagat Singh, Ajoy Ghosh and Chandrashekar Azad.



Source: Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Mcmillan, Madras. pp 251


Hindustan Republic Association




Hindustan Republic Association
Hindustan Republic Association was formed in 1924. It was formed by Sachin Sanyal and Jogesh Chandra Chatterji, the Bengalis living in United Province. The association has been made more popular in general text books for Kakori Train hold up in August 1925 which was undertaken to raise funds for the activities of the association.



Source:
Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Mcmillan, Madras. pp 251



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Pathar Dabi 1926




Pathar Dabi 1926
Pathar Dabi is a novel written by Sarat Chandra Chatterji (Devdasa and Parinita). It was published in 1926. It is built around the idea of voilent revolution by urban middle class. It reflects the 20's of twentieth century colonial period India when revolutionary activities had re emerged in form of Hindustan Republic Association.



Source: Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Mcmillan, Madras. pp 251



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MOTHERS & SONS - Nishkriti (Deliverance); Bindur Chale (Bindu's Son); Ramer Sumati (The Compliant Prodigal) - 3 short novels in one Volume

Kirti Kisan Party 1926




Kirti Kisan Party 1926
Kirti Kisan Party was organized in Punjab in 1926. It was headed by Sonhan Singh Josh. It included many Ghadr members of 1914 and members of Babbar Akali Movement of Punjab. It had Kriti as its main journal which was in existence before the formation of the group.



Source: Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Mcmillan, Madras. pp 250



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Peasants and Workers Party 1925-26




Peasants and Workers Party 1925-26
Peasants and Workers Party was organized in Calcutta in 1925-26. It was earlier called Labour-Swaraj Party. It was formed by Muzaffar Ahamd, Nazrul Islam -a famous Poet, Qutubuddin Ahmad, and Hemandtakumar Sarkar.



Source: Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Mcmillan, Madras. pp 250.



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Indian Communist Conference-December 1925




Indian Communist Conference December 1925:
Indian Communist Conference was held in December 1925. According the official view of the Communist Party of India as accepted in 1958, the Conference of 1925 marks the foundation of Communist Party of India.

The Conference was held in Kanpur. It was called after receiving a set back to numerous conspiracy cases like Peshawar Conspiracy Cases, Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy cases against the communism oriented Indians. It was organized by Satyabhakta. Hasrat Mohani, a known poet in pre-independence and and post-independence India was the chariman of the Rception Committee. Singaravely was its President.



Source: Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Mcmillan, Madras. pp 249



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Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy Case 1924




Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy Case 1924
Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy Case tried the emerging leaders supporting communist ideology. Under this trial, Muzaffar Ahmad, S. A. Dange, Shaukat Usmani and Nalini Gupta were jailed in May 1924.
During second decade of the twentieth century, the Imperialist British government ruling over India was highly terrified with the idea of spread of communism in India. Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy Case and Peshwar Conspiracy Case which were five trials were mainly result of that fear factor.



Source: Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Mcmillan, Madras. pp 249,
Dictionary of History of India



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Modern India: 1885-1947A Critique on Colonial IndiaModern India 1885-1947

Peshwar Conspiracy Case (1922-1927)




Peshwar Conspiracy Case (1922-1927)
Peshwar Conspiracy Case was a trial against the muhajirs who had tried to sneak in India from Russia in order to start communist movement in India. There were five cases which continued from 1922 to 1927.



Source: Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Mcmillan, Madras. pp 249



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Girni Kamgar Mahamandal 1923




Girni Kamgar Mahamandal 1923
Girni Kamgar Mahamandal was founded in 1923 by A. A. Alve and G. R. Kasle in Calcutta. It was one of the first organization formed on the ideology of communism in Bengal. A. A. Alve and G. R. Kasle were earlier revolutionaries who had turned to communism later.



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May Day ( First Time in India)




May Day was celebrated in India for the first time in 1923 on the Madras beach. It was celebrated in a rally organized by Singaravelu.



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Jamshedpur Labour Association 1920




Jamshedpur Labour Association 1920:
Jamshedpur Labour Association was started by S. N. Haldar in 1920. It was started with the workers of TATA Steel Industry, Jamshedpur. It was finally recognized by TATA Steel Industry in 1925. C. F. Andrews became its President in 1925. It had invited Gandhi to Jamshedpur wherein the management of the Tata Steel Industry also extended him its hospitality.



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Jharia Conference 1921




Jharia Conference 1921 was a major conference of Labour Movement in India in which there was large scale participation by the Mill workers.



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Pherozeshah Mehta




Pherozeshah Mehta



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Sir Cowasji Jehangir




Sir Cowasji Jehangir



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Thursday, June 11, 2009

Assam Kesari




Assam Kesari
Assam Kesari is the title given to the poet Ambikagiri Roychaudhari



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Padanur Black Hole (Mass Murder)




Padanur Black Hole (Mass Muder)
During the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920-21, the Moplahs in Malabar region also responded to the call of Gandhi for non-cooperation. The contemporary British government in India tried to suppress the rising with repression. It lead to numerous death. It was then, that 66 asphyxiated bodies of Moplah prisoners were found shut in a railway wagon. Some historians have termed it as Padanur Black Hole equating it to Black Hole Tregady of Fort Williams at Calcutta in 1757 reported by Dr. Holwell wherein 144 British people died when they were put in 18 feet by 14 feet room. In that incidence, it was reported that nearly 38 of them survived.



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Maalapalli 1922




Maalapalli
Maalapalli is novel written by Unnava Lakshminaryana in 1922. It is based on the story related to Non-Cooperation Movement in Andhara belt wherein conflict between Gandhian methods and extremist method in form of a social banditry nearing the concept of communist revolution based on international solidarity of toilers.



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Singaravelu Chettiar




Singaravelu Chettiar:
Singaravelu Chettiar was an established senior lawyer in Madras. He discontinued his flourishing practice in response to the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920-1921. However, later he turned to Marxism and he is considered to be the first Communist of the country.



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Thiru Vi Ka




Thiru Vi Ka



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Babar Deva Bariya




Babar Deva Bariya



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Anti-Non-Cooperation Associaton 1920




Anti-Non-Cooperation Association 1920:
The Anti-Non-Cooperation Association 1920 was started by big businessmen of Bombay in 1920 against the Non-Cooperation/Khilafat Movement (1920-1921). It was established by Jamnadas Dwarkadas, Purshottamdas Thaukrdass, Cowasji Jehangir, Pheroze Sethna and Setalvad. The businessmen of Bombay felt that the movement would encourage the labour strikes which in Bombay Presidency turned out be violent at earlier occasion. Secondly, Gandhi did not have that acceptance in Maharashtra region which at that time was still remembered Bal Gangadhar Tilak.



Source:
Sumit Sarkar, Modern India, pp 208



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Monday, June 8, 2009

Origin of Amrita Bazar Patrika




Origin of Amrita Bazar Patrika.
Hari Narayan Ghose of Magura, District Jessore was a reputed rich man of his area. The name of his wife was Amrita. His son, Sisir Kumar Ghose and Moti Lal Ghosh established a Bazar and named it after their mother Amrita as Amrita Bazar. They started a weekly Amrita Bazar Patrika as a rival to Bengalee of Surendranath Banerjee. Soon they made it a daily news paper. It was edited by Moti Lal Ghose who did not have a University qualification but a self taught person. He made Amrita Bazar Patrika more popular by his honest reporting and caustic humour.



Source: Political Agitators in India, A Confidential Report, pp. 15, Available in Digitized form on Archives.org, contributed by Library of University of Toronto, Digitized for Microsoft Corporation by Internet Archive in 2007, provided by University of Toronto, accessed on June 8, 2009 and link at http://www.archive.org/details/politicalagitato00slsnuoft



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Bhupendranath Dutt



Bhupendranath Dutt
Bhupendranath Dutt was born in 1884 in Calcutta. He was brother of Swami Vivekananda (Narendranath ). He was widely read person but could not clear his BA examination. He edited Jugantar for sometime for which he was arrested for sedition and imprisoned for one year on July 24, 1907. He was released in June 1908 but he left India for USA afterwards. He was believed to be a dangerous leader of the revolution in Bengal by the contemporary administration of British Empire in India at Calcutta (Kolkata).




Source: Political Agitators in India, A Confidential Report, Available in Digitized form on Archives.org, contributed by Library, University of Toronto, Digitized for Microsoft Corporation by Internet Archive in 2007, provided by University of Toronto, accessed on June 8, 2009 and link at http://www.archive.org/details/politicalagitato00slsnuoft



Photograph Source: http://www.vivekananda.net/PPlHeKnew/Family/Bhupendranath.html
at www.vivekananda.net



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Anjuman-i-Mohibban-i-Wattan




Anjuman-i-Mohibban-i-Wattan:
It was a society started by Ajit Singh in Punjab. He was an Arya Samajist. He is more identified as the uncle of Martyr Bhagat Singh.
Anjuman-i-Mohibban-Wattan translates to "Society of lovers of their country' in English. It was started on Extremist lines. Under the aegis of this society, Sardar Ajit Singh started an agitation against the increased water rates of Chennab and Bari Doab irrigation canals. He was deported in May 1907 along with Lala Lajpat Rai.



Sources: Sarkar Sumit, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Macmillan Publication.



Digital Library Source: Internet Archive : Political Agitators in India: Private and Confidential: Contributed to the Internet Archive by University of Tronto as accessed on June 8, 2009. IST 8.23 AM.



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Sunday, June 7, 2009

Samitis Movement






Samitis Movement
Samitis Movement is also called national volunteer movement (Do not confuse it with Rashtriya Swyam Sang). It started somewhere before the Swadeshi Movement which was basically an Anti-Bengal Partition Movement. The membership of Smitis increased with the rise of Swadeshi Movement. They were mainly open bdoies engaged in phusical and moral trainings of the youth of Bengal. They also participated in numerous social welfare activities expecially during antural calamities like spread of epidemics or famines.

According to a police report of 1907, there were 19 Samitis in Clcautta. However, such associations were more active in East Bengal. Accoerding to another police report of June 1907, there were 8485 members voerall, associated with different Samities in East Bengal.

Some of the main Samitis were Anti Circular Soceity of Clacutta, Barisal Swadeshi Bandhave of Aswinkumar Dutt having 170 village branches by 1909, Dacca Anusilan of Pulin Das etc.

Some historians have termed their activities as terrorist activities. It is against the craft of history to transport a concept of one time over to other time. Terrorism as a tool in hands of anomly groups and paradigm belongs to 1960s when the Muslim Brotherhood activities increased the use of arms and bombs. Hence, it is wrong to term the activities before that period in concept of paradigms which developed latter.




Sarkar Sumit, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, macmillan publication, pp 119-121



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Premtosh Bose

Premtosh Bose
Premtosh Bose was a proprietor of a Printing Press in Calcutta. He was a pioneer labour leader in Bengal Province of British Empire in India. He played an active role in organising a Railwaymen's Union in East Indian Railway in 1906 when Bengal was agitating against the partition of Bengal.

Athanasius Apurbakumar Ghosh

Athanasius Apurbakumar Ghosh
Athanasius Apurbakumar Ghosh was a barrister in Calcutta. He was a pioneer labour leader during the early decades of twentieth century in British Empire in India.



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Prabhatkusum Roychoudhari

Prabhatkusum Roychoudhari
Prbhatkusum Roychoudhari was a barrister in Calcutta. He was a pioneer labour leader during the first decade of twentieth century in Bengal Province of British Empire in India.



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Ashwanicoomer Banerji

Ashwanicoomer Banerji
Ashwanicoomer Banerji was a barrister in Bengal. He was among the pioneer labour leaders of Bengal. He has been reported in an official survey 'Administration of Of Bengal under Andrew Fraser 1903-8' wherein he had been identified as professional agitators.



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Doctrine of Passive Resistance

Doctrine of Passive Resistance
Doctrine of Passive Resistance is authored by Aurobindo Ghosh. It is based on a series of articles by Aurobindo Ghosh which were published in April 1907 in the journal Bande Matram. The articles were written when the Bengal was burning with indignation after its partition October 16, 1905 by Viceroy Curzon. The main theme of the articles is the methods and ideology which could be adopted in face of oppression and injustice as perpetrated by the contemporary British rule in India.

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External Links: Yogic Equality: The Foundation of Sadhana: Words of Sri Aurbindo and The Mother
Poetic Plays of Sri Aurbindo

Swadesh Bandhav Samiti

Swadesh Bandhav Samiti



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Dawn Society

Dawn Society
Dawn Society was established by Satishchandra Mukherji during the Swadeshi Movement against the partition of Bengal during the tenure of Lord Curzon as the Viceroy of the British Indian Empire. It was a progressive and constructive response different from the mendicant methods of protests of the Moderates generally identified with the members of the Indian National Congress. Under the society, Satishchandra Mukherji started educational institutions which aimed at imparting education to the Indians who were encouraged to leave the government or government aided schools and colleges as a protest against the parititon of Bengal.



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Louis Dane's Mission

Louis Dane's Mission:
Louis Dane's Mission was a diplomatic mission to Afghanistan under direction of Lord Curzon who Viceroy of India. India was under the imperial rule of Great Britain. It was an attempt of Viceroy of India to direct the foreign policy around South Asia from Calcutta, which was seat of power in British Indian Empire.



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Justify Full

Praja Mithra Mandali




Praja Mithra Mandali



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C. R. Reddi




C. R. Reddi



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E. V. Ramaswamy Naicker

E. V. Ramaswamy Naicker



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Nadar Mahajan Sangam 1910

Nadar Mahajan Sangam 1910



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Praja Movement

Praja Movement



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Saturday, June 6, 2009

Kunvarji Mehta

Kunvarji Mehta



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Raj Kumar Shukla

Raj Kumar Shukla



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Bijolia Movement

Bijolia Movement:
It was a pioneer agrarian movement in the Mewar State in present Udaipur District.

The Jagirdar of Bijolia was a Parmar Rajput having 96 villages in his jagir. There were 86 different taxes on peasants against which peasants revolted in 1905. The initial leadership was provided by Sitaram Das. The movement got linked to national movement. Vijay (Bijoy) Singh Pathik and Manik Lal Verma (future Chief Minister of Rajasthan) led a no tax movement in 1916. It was called Bijolia movement. The peasants refused to do begar and held back the taxes. The movement continued through 1920s and spread over to other States of Rajputana.

Important note: The no tax movement at Bijolia took place before the Champaran Indigo Satyagraha of Gandhi. Secondly, it was started in Princely States.



Source: Mainly Sumit Sarkar and multiple sources through net and digital libraries.



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05.07.2010: html edit. added to Manik Lal Verma


Peasants' Movements in Post-Colonial IndiaAgrarian Problems and Peasant Movements in Latin America.


Manik Lal Verma

Manik Lal Verma



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Bhoop Singh alias Vijay Singh Pathik

Bhoop Singh alias Vijay Singh Pathik



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Sitaram Dass (Peasant Revolt)

Sitaram Dass (Peasant Revolt)



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Govind Guru

Govind Guru



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Jatra Bhagat

Jatra Bhagat:




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Alluri Sitram Raju

Alluri Sitram Raju





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Arandhan

Arandhan:
Arandhan is a rite of mourning. The hearth is not lit. The food is not prepared. Nothing is kept on fire for boiling or baking in the house. Thus, the rite is performed.

This custom was made the mode of protest during the Bengal partition. It was adopted along with Rakhi Bandhan and Boycott. It was suggested by Ramendrasunder Trivedi. The Rakhi Bandhan was suggested by Rabindranath Tagore.

The method of protest in form of Boycott, Rakhi Bandhan and Arandhan was a new dimension in the freedom struggle of India. It was adopted in case of anti-Bengal partition movement. However, it added a new dimension to the moderate’s mode of protest which were meeting, memorandum, petitions and pamphlet publishing. They are mostly interpreted by historians as sign of the rise of Extremist mode of protest in the Moderate form of politics which is mostly termed as a mendicant approach of the earlier political leaders mostly associated with Indian National Congress.

The historians have also identified it with another trend in India’s freedom of struggle. They have interpreted and tried to show that the mass mobilization was undertaken through an appeal to religious practices. For that, they present Rakhi Bandhan and Arandhan as the Hindu religious practices as a case studies. They argue that it became the cause of Hindu Muslim divide on religious basis. This set of argument is mainly promoted by Marxist and among them Subaltern and Grmascian Historians. They either begin with this argument and substantiate it with the class divide paradigm which permeated the Muslim and Hindu society in Bengal (especially East Bengal). The same way of interpretation in arrangement of arguments, first identify that class divide among Hindu and Muslim on economic basis and then argue that it was consolidated when Hindu customs were made the symbols during protest against the executive acts of the Colonial rulers. In either of the set of logic, they try to conclude that adoption of Rakhi Bandhan and Arandhan were the main cause of limited appeal of the Wang-Bang Movement. They argue that by 1909, all the political practices which had been later identified with Gandhian mode of political protests had been practiced during this time but such religious customs as symbols in form of protest symbol for raising a mass movement reduced the impact of Bengal movement and as such made it merely a local movement.




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Tuesday, June 2, 2009

Younghusband Expedition (1903-1904)

Younghusband Expedition (1903-1904)

The Younghusband Expedition (1903-1904) is also known as the British Expedition to Tibet (1903-1904).





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British Expedition to Tibet at Wikipedia

Monday, March 23, 2009

Jullundur Mutiny 1920

Jullunder Mutiny (Jalandhar Mutiny): 1920


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Indian Independence Committee 1915

Indian Independence Committee 1915
The Indian Independence Committee was formed by Indian revolutionaries who were working for the independence of India from the foreign countries. It was formed in 1915 in Berlin when the World War First was going on. It was formed to make arrangements to help the revolutionaries within India to fight the British administration. It is believed that it was being supported by German foreign office under the ‘Zimmerman Plan’. The leading members of the committee was Viendranath Chattopadhyay (Chatto), Bhupen Dutta, Lala Har Dayal Verma and others. It is more popular as Berlin Committee of Indian Independence in history text books in India.

The historians evaluate the forming of the Indian Independence Committee as one of the two main responses of the Indians patriots. In this case, it was the response of the revolutionaries for whom the starting of World War had given an opportunity to push out Britain out India. The second response was represented by Home Rule Movement, which ultimately favoured helping the British efforts in the world war and then latter use it for negotiation for getting political rights for Indians within India. In case of the activities of the revolutionaries with operational centre in foreign countries, they are generally shown as conspiracies. However, the Indian historians have not gone beyond that. After suggesting that they were part of some conspiracy, they have not taken conspiracy theories thesis to their logical conclusions. No doubt, they can not escape the responsibility of suggesting that though there had been conspiracies yet such acts had also contributed to the Indian freedom struggle. As a result apart from Indian Independence Committee fact, the Ghadrites, the Hindu Conspiracy Case 1918, Provincial Government of Free India at Kabul etc are all treated in that manner.


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Sunday, March 22, 2009

Virendranath Chattopadhay

Virendranath Chattopadhay
Virendranath Chattopadhay was an Indian Revolutionary who made Berlin as a base of his activities in 1909. He also published the journal 'Talvar'. He was one of the first lot of Indian communist who became follower of Marxism after the October Revolution of Russia.


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Indian Sociologist


Indian Sociologist
Indian Sociologist was a journal started by Shyamji Krishanvarma.




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Shyamji Krishnavarma

Shyamji Krishnavarma
Shyamji Krishnavarma undertook his freedom struggle against the colonial rule of Britain over India while staying in London. He basically advocated a theory of passive resistance. However, he was surrounded by or got associated with such young people from India who preferred radical means of removing Britain from India.

Shimaji Krishnavarma started a journal called Indian Sociologist. He also established a centre for Indian students which was called India House. He also started the Indian Home Rule Society. V. D. Savarkar and Madanlal Dhingra were also assocaited with India House along with other leading revolutionary Indians. However, in later studies, the act of Madanlal Dhingra of klleing Curzon Wyllie an officer who had worked in Amritsar, had been shown to have taken place under influence of drugs and thereby project the activities promoted under Shyamji Krishnavarma in dark colours.


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Sachindranath Sanyal

Sachindranath Sanyal (Sachindra Nath Sanyal)
Sachindranath Sanyal was an Indian revolutionary who fought against the colonial rule of Britain over India. He organized secret revolutionary associations over North India with centres in Punjab, Delhi and United Province. He was able to establish contacts with foreign countries for his activities. He worked with Rashbehari Bose. He was believed to be associated with the bombing of the convy of Viceroy Hardinge when he was entering the new Capital at Delhi on December 23, 1912.


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Rashbehari Bose

Rashbehari Bose:
Rashbehari Bose was the Indian revolutionary who fought against the colonial rule of Britain in India. He organized secret revolutionary societies which had even international contacts. His activities were spread over Northern India covering Punjab, Delhi and United Province. He was associated with Sachindranath Sanyal in such activities. He was believed to be associated with the bombing of the convy of Viceroy Hardinge when he was entering the new Capital at Delhi on December 23, 1912.



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Swadeshi Dacoities

Swadeshi Dacoities:
'Swadeshi Dacoities' is a phrase coined by Historians working on Indian history on the period of freedom struggle of India against the Imperial rule of Britain.

The historians who prefer to use this term refer under it to those activities of revolutionaries which included the fire arms methodology against the British rule in India. Under this phrase, the assassinations of British and Indian officials, traitors to the cause of the freedom struggle, the activities of looting of government treasuries for raising funds for the activities of the movement, are covered.

The term is mainly made popular by Marxist historians. The use of arms was part of the technique of the communist for bringing the revolution. Therefore, it is the evaluation of Indian History facts from ideological perspective and eye glasses of pure Marxist theorists who also write history. They have started using term 'terrorism' for the activities performed by the Indian nationalist who fought for the freedom of their motherland from the colonial rule of Britain.

It can be at the best called a historian's construct to build a historic myth. Such an evaluation is subjected to open criticism and discouraged.



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Ali Brothers

Ali Brothers:
Ali Brothers in Indian history for the Freedom Struggle period refers to Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. They were from United Province. They promoted radical views in Muslim League. They were identified with the Young Party of Muslim League which dominated the Muslim League from 1912. They promoted militant methodology to remove the Imperial rule of Britain over India. They favoured a workable accommodation with nationalist Hindus. They worked for pan-Islamic Movement. They started Khilafat Movement.



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Friday, March 20, 2009

Mohsin-ul-Mulk

Mohsin-ul-Mulk



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Shimla Deputation 1906

Shimla Depatation 1906:

On October 1, 1906, a group of Muslim representatives of Muslim elite of United Province and specifically from Aligarh, met the Viceroy Minto at Shimla. They sought separate electorates and representation in excess of numerical strength in view of their loyalty towards the defence of the Crown Empire in India.

Soon afterwards, in the month of December 1906, Muslim League was founded by Salimulla and the members of the deputation was found dominating the working of the Muslim League.



Special Note: Some of the books in India identify Shimla Deputation with Muslim League deputation. It is not correct to present it in that manner. It is important to note that when the deputation met, there was no Muslim League party in existence as such. The deputation met in June 1906. The party was formed in December 1906.



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Servants of India Soceity

Servants of India Society:
Servants of India Society was launched by Gopal Krishan Gokhle, the moderate leader of Congress in June 1905. It aimed at working on the principles of self-sacrifice, moral purity and full time national work.

It had great relevance for the time when it was formed. It was formed when the extremist group in the Congress was trying to adopt their ways in the working of the Inadian National Congress. Secondly, it was felt that the Congress should continue to work throughout the year. The Society was formed by the most dominating person of the Congress of that time. It tried to promote the moderate methods in the working of the Congress.



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Thursday, March 19, 2009

Sunday, March 15, 2009

Prafulla Chaki

Prafulla Chaki



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Kshudiram Basu

Kshudiram Basu



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Hemchandra Kanungo

Hemchandra Kanugo: He was probably the first revolutionary who went abroad to get military and political training. (Sumit Sarkar) He returned in January 1908 and started a bomb factory in Maniktala near Calcutta. Brindrajumar Ghose was also associated with this activity. It was discovery of this factory which went to make the popular Calcutta Bomb Case.



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Wednesday, March 11, 2009

Satishchandra Mukherji


Satishchandra Mukherji (Satish Chandra Mukherjee):
He was the founder of the journal Dawn and Dawn Society. Dawn Society had played a seminal role in the national education movement which had developed along with Wang Bang Movement of 1905. The demand of national education was one of the response of the Indian nationalists against the colonial rule. It was accompanied by the movement of Swadeshi and boycott. Some of the scholars believe that it was mainly a result of Wang Bang movement. However, later, the nationalist responses of Wang Bang Movement excluding revolutionary approach became the core of Gandhian political struggle based on Satyagrah and Non-Violence against the colonial rule of Britain. Satish Chandra Mukherjee was highly impressed by the Non-violence movement. He remained associated with Mahatama Gandhi also.


Source: Photograph Source: Wikipedia Article.


External Links:Satish Chandra Mukherjee (Wikipedia Article)


Banglapedia Article: Satish Chandra Mukherjee

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Boycott of British Goods

Boycott of British Goods:

Boycott of British Goods was one of the major technique of protest invented by the Indians fighting against the imperial rule of Britain during their freedom struggle for freedom. It was first suggested in a weekly Sanjivani on July 13, 1905. The weekly Sanjivani was edited by Krishankumar Mitra at that time. It was later adopted by Congress on August 7, 1905 as one the technique to protest against the partition of Bengal which was scheduled to take place on October 16, 1905. It was the most effective technique of Wang Bang movement. It had full support of leaders like Sunrendranath Banerji. It was adopted by other Moderate leaders in the Congress who was strongly against any unconstitutional mean of protest. Soon this approach of freedom fighters asking abrogation of Bengal partition by hitting at the purse at Manchester, graduated at full fledged demand of Swaraj in writings of leaders like Aurbindo Ghosh. It is considered as the maturing of the Indian nationalism by a set of scholars who oppose the theory of Cambridge School of historian (Pro-Imperialistic theory of the aim of civilizing the world by the Christian world). It was definitely a strong statement which had added a practical (Theoretical economic theory had developed by Dadabhai Naoroji in 1870s.) economic dimension to the freedom struggle of India. Later it was adopted by Mohandass Karamchand Gandhi as an important part of political technique based on satyagraha.


Source:
Sarkar, Sumit. Modern India 1885-1947, Macmillan, Madras, 1989. SBN 033390 425 7


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Sunday, March 8, 2009

Barindrakumar Ghosh

Barinderkumar Ghosh:
Barinderkumar Ghosh was the elder brother of Aurobindo Ghosh. He founded Samiti in 1902 in Calcutta. Promotha Mitter and Jatindranath Banerji were other two co-founders of the Samiti. In April 1906, Barindra started Yugantar, a weekly, in the month of April 1906. He was assisted by Bhupendranath Dutta in the editorial board of the weekly.



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Jatindranath Banerji

Jatindranath Banerji:
Jatindranath Banerji was the the founder of the Anushilan Samiti in Calcutta. He founded the Samiti in 1902 along with Promotha Mitter and Barindrakumar Ghosh. He was considered as the representative of Aurobindo Ghosh. Aurobindo Ghosh was a Diwan in Baroda at the time and considered as a brain behind this movement.



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Promotha Mitter

Promotha Mitter:
He was the founder of Anushilan Samiti, the first revolutionary group to be founded in Calcutta. The associates of Promotha Mitter in this activity was Jatindranath Banerji and Barindrakumar Ghosh.



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Jnanendranath Basu

Jnanendranath Basu
He started the first revolutionary group in Midnapur in 1902. Such revolutionary groups were called Samiti in Bengal



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Jatindranath Bandopadhyay

Jatindranath Bandopadhyay



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Sufi Amba Parsad

Sufi Amba Parsad



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Lal Chand 'Falak'

Lal Chand 'Falak'



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Pandit (Sir) Sunder Lal Advocate

Pandit (Sir) Sunder Lal Advocate

Saturday, March 7, 2009

Dr Shyama Prasad Mookerjee

Dr Shyama Prasad Mookerjee


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Professor MEGHNAD SAHA

Professor MEGHNAD SAHA


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Officers Behind Bengal Partition in 1905

Officers Behind Bengal Partition in 1905.

There were four main British Officers who undertook the partition of Bengal.


They were William Ward, Andrew Fraser, H. H. Risley and Lord Curzon.


William Ward was the Chief Commissioner of Assam who moved the proposal of attaching Chittagong Division, Dacca and Mymensingh to Assam in 1896-97.


Andrew Fraser as the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal repeated the proposal of William Ward in note of March 28, 1903.


Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India of the time, included the note in his minute pm territorial redistribution in India on June 1, 1903.


Home Secretary H. H. Risley announced the partition of Bengal on December 3, 1903 in his letter to Lord Curzon.


Relief of Bengal and Improvement of Assam were the two benefits forwarded in the official version on the causes and need of the partition of Bengal.

The formal announcement of the partition of Bengal was made on July 19, 1905.






Source:
Sarkar, Sumit. Modern Indian 1885-1947, Macmillan, Madras, 1983, pp. 106.




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Asutosh Mukerji

Asutosh Mukerji:
Asutosh Mukherjee did his post graduation in Mathematics from Calcutta University. He was imparted the doctorate in Law in 1894. He taught as a Professor of Law in 1898. He became a judge in Calcutta High Court in 1904. In 1906, he was appointed Vice Chancellor of Calcutta University. It was an educationalist that he left his impact on the Indian history.

He was the Vice Chancellor of Calcutta University. He was known to have brought around a sea change in the academic environment in Calcutta University which was then made to work as postgraduate teaching institution under the Universities Act of 1904. Under his visionary guidance, the Calcutta University was able to establish itself as an institution of par excellence.

Later his son, Shayama Prasad Mukherjee had also risen in public esteem by virtue of his personal achievements. Dr. Shayama Prasad Mukherjee who entered political life in 1926 as a Congress worker, later founded Bhartiya Jan Sangh in 1952.


Source:
Sarkar, Sumit. Modern Indian 1885-1947, Macmilan, Madras, 1983, pp. 105.


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March 8, 2009, 7. 40 AM. Added Details like qualification and relation with Dr. Shayama Prasad Mukherjee.



Gurudas Banerjee

Gurudas Banerjee was the only Indian member of the Universities Commission which introduced reforms in in September 1901 at Shimla during the tenure of Lord Curzon as the Viceroy of India. The Universities Act formed on the recommendation of the commission was passed in 1904.



Source:
Sarkar, Sumit. Modern Indian 1885-1947, Macmillan, Madras, 1983, pp. 105.



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Thursday, March 5, 2009

New Lamps for Old by Aurbindo Ghosh

New Lamps for Old by Aurbindo Ghosh.

It was a series of essays which appeared between 1893 and 1894. It were written by Aurbindo Ghosh. It mainly criticized the policies of Congress which it termed as full of mendicancy.

It adopted the class structure paradigm while criticised the moderate policies of Congress as being followed by Pherozeshah Mehta, Dadabhai Naoroji and Gopal Krishan Gokhle. It was considered as a harbringer of extremist approach in Congress policies and later the revolutionary trends in India in first decade of the twientieth century India.

Wednesday, March 4, 2009

Shells From the Sands of Bombay by Wacha

Shells From the Sands of Bombay by Wacha:
Shells From the Sands of Bombay had been written by Dinsha Edulji Wacha. The main title of the book is "Shells from the Sands of Bombay, Being My Recollections of Bombay: 1860-1875. It was published in 1920.



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Tuesday, March 3, 2009

Madras Mahajan Sabha

Madras Mahajan Sabha


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Poona Sarvajanik Sabha

Poona Sarvajanik Sabha


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Ananda Charlu

Ananda Charlu


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Dwarkanath Ganguli

Dwarkanath Ganguli


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Anandmohan Bose

Anandmohan Bose


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Manmohan Ghosh

Manmohan Ghosh



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Lalmohan Ghosh

Lalmohan Ghosh



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Bholanath Chandra

Bholanath Chandra



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Sunday, March 1, 2009

Girishchandra Ghosh

Girishchandra Ghosh


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Brojendranath De

Brojendranath De


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Dinabandhu Mitra

Dinabandhu Mitra


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Nabagopal Mitra

Nabagopal Mitra


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Rashid Ahmed Gangohi

Rashid Ahmed Gangohi


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Muhammad Qasim Nanawtawi

Muhammad Qasim Nanawtawi



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Monday, January 26, 2009

Shadhdarshana or Darshana

The Shadhdarshana means the six Doctrines or the Six systems of Salvation or the Six Schools of Philosophies of Hinduism. They are as follows.

Sr. noName of the DoctrineName of the Rishi/Apostle
1Nayaya:AnalysisAkshapada Gautama
2Vaisheshika: Doctrine of Individual CharateristicsUluka Kanada
3Sankhya: The CountKapila
4Yoga: Now Most popular in West as a school of physical discipliningPatanjali
5Mimansa: EnquiryJamini
6 Vedanta, also Uttara MimansaShankaracharya

Dus Avataras of Vishnu

The Dus Avataras of Vishnu means the ten incarnations of Vishnus as per Hindu religion mythology. They are given below

Sr. no. Hindi Name Probable English Term
1MatsyaThe Fish
2KurmaThe Tortoise
3VarahaThe Boar
4NarasimhaThe Man Lion
5VamanThe Dwarf
6ParasuramaRama with the Axe
7RamaRaghukul Prince Rama of Ayodhya
8KrishnaKing Krishna of Dwarka of Vrishni Tribe
9BudhaPrince Sidhardha
10KalkinIn incarnation yet to come

Sunday, January 25, 2009

Vedangas




Vedangas are treatises which form the part of Vedic literature. They are six in number. The etymological meaning of Vedanga means limbs of Vedas. It suggests that they are helpful in understanding the Vedas. It is written by an established scholar that ‘the study of Vedanga was necessary either for the reading, the understanding, or the proper sacrificial employment of the Veda.’ Hence, these six limbs or the six treatise or the six subjects are necessary for fully understanding the Vedas which are Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sam Veda and Atharva Veda.


Further, R. C. Majumdar, specifically emphasis that they should not be taken as mere six books but the six subjects which are to be understood to appreciate the contents of the Vedas. It should be further remembered that they are treatises. It means that they are work of the intellect and memory of human beings. They are product of the use of human faculties.


These six treatises are:
  1. Sikhsha (pronunciation)

  2. Chhandas (metre)
  3. Vyakarana (grammar)
  4. Nirukta (explanation of words; etymology)
  5. Jyotisha (astronomy {Kindly note, not the astrology as it is generally believed. That is other thing, that it is latter used for astrology far more than for executing Vedic ceremonies.})
  6. Kalpa (ceremonial).


R. C. Majumdar has emphasised that
the first two are considered necessary for reading the Veda, the two next for understanding it, and the last two for employing it at sacrifices.



Therefore, it means that Sikhsha and Chhandas, that are metre and grammar are used for reading the Veda. They are used merely for reading. The Vyakrana and Nirukta, that are grammar and etymology, are used for understanding the Vedas. Finally, Jyotisha and Kalpa, that are astronomy and ceremonial involve the operational aspect, action aspect, the activity aspect of the Vedas.





Source Used: Majumdar, R. C., ‘Ancient History’.



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Friday, January 23, 2009

Mahajanapadas (List)

According to Anguttara Nikaya, a Buddhist source, the followings were the sixteen Mahajanapadas.
  1. Anga
  2. Magadha
  3. Kashi
  4. Kosala
  5. Vajji
  6. Malla
  7. Chedi
  8. Vatsa
  9. Kuru
  10. Panchala
  11. Matsya
  12. Sursena
  13. Assaks
  14. Avanti
  15. Gandhara
  16. Kamboja

According to Bhagwati Sutra, a Jain Source, the followings were the sixteen Mahajanapadas.
  1. Anga
  2. Banga (Vanga)
  3. Magadha
  4. Malaya
  5. Malava
  6. Achchha
  7. Vachcha
  8. Kachchha
  9. Padhan (Pandy) (Vatsa)
  10. Ladha (Lata)
  11. Sajji (Vajji)
  12. Moli (Malla)
  13. Kasi
  14. Kosala
  15. Avaha
  16. Sambhuttara

Saturday, January 10, 2009

Ananda Ranga Pillai

Joseph Fran├žois Dupleix

Anglo French Conflict in India

In eighteenth century India, English and French trading companies competed and fought with each other in India for the control over the trade and political power in India. It is generally called the Anglo French Conflict in India.


The conflict between English and French Trading companies went through four phases. In first three phases, the trading companies of France and England fought three wars on the land of India. Those three wars are recorded in Indian history as three Karnataka war or merely Karnataka wars. The first Karnataka War was fought between 1746 and 1748. It ended with Aix-la Chapella treaty which was signed between England and France in 1748 in Europe. The second Karnataka war was fought between 1749 and 1754. It ended in the Treaty of Pondicherry signed in 1754. The third Karnataka war was fought between 1758 and 1763. It ended with the Treaty of Peace of Paris.


In the fourth phase, which extended from 1778 to 1815, the French tried to eliminate the British by helping the native rulers like of Nizam of Hyderabad, Tipu of Mysore and the Maratha Chiefs by training their armies on the European model. The French officers also tried to train the army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore.


The above contest or conflict must be understood in context of the European history. Britain and France did not have good relations between them on European continent. However, the European trading companies trading in India being ruled by Mughals, especially the French and British companies, maintained very cordial relations among themselves in India while trading. They readily cooperated and coordinated in their trading activities over the Indian land. However, during Karnataka war, the British and French trading compaies fought when France and Britain fought in Europe. Secondly, all through the period of Karnataka war, though they had actively interfere in Indian and Mughal court politics, they remained under the hollow of the might of the Mughals. It was only after Battle of Buxar, the English Company became confident of itself. By then, it had already beaten the French company in India.

The Karnataka wars established that among the European trading countries in India, England Trading company was supreme.

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