Wednesday, June 17, 2009

Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha




Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha:
The Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha was founded by Swami Sahajananda Saraswati, a leading peasant leader of India.



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The Photograph of Swami Sahajananda Sarawati can be checked at South Asian Studies of South Asia Resources, University of Virginia Library


Monday, June 15, 2009

Punjab Riyasti Praja Mandal




Punjab Riyasti Praja Mandal
The Punjab Riyasti Praja Mandal was formed in July 1928 at Mansa under the guidance of Akali leader Karakh Singh while he was during the region of Patiala kingdom ruled at that time by Maharaja Bhupinder Singh.



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Butler Committee Report





Butler Committee Report
Butler Committee was headed by Harcourt Butler. It was appointed by Viceroy of India, Irwin. It reviewed the question of Paramountcy. The Princes of India wanted to review the issue of Paramountcy while bargaining for their participation in Round Table Conference where the British government wanted them to be. Butler concluded, "Paramoutcy must remain paramount."
The judgement of the committee was not in favour of the Council of Princes. However, the main fear of the Princes was that if the Dominion Status was imparted to India, then there could a central government dominated by the Congress members. However, later, as the talks progressed, the idea of Federal government at centre was favoured and the issue of Dominion Status was just made silent. The features which were suggested under the Federal Structure in India were such that the Princes did not have to fear the Congress majority control at centre level.



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Photograph Source: Photograph accessed on June 16, 2009 at www.upgovernor.gov.in, ownership of the content Secretariat Rajbhavan Lucknow and maintained by NIC. (Copyright issue: The contents are at government of India site meant for information as well appropriate use. The appropriate link is given and acknowledged. Even if there is any objection, kindly place it in the comment section and email me quoting the approriate section and interpertation.)



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Photograph accessed on June 16, 2009 at www.upgovernor.gov.in, ownership of the content Secretariat Rajbhavan Lucknow and maintained by NIC



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Sunday, June 14, 2009

Delhi Statement




Delhi Statement:
Delhi Statement was issued by Gandhi on November 2, 1928.
In the statement it was sugested that the proposed conference which Simon Commission was expected to recommend, would discuss the features of Dominion Status. In the conference, the Congress delegates would have majority. The agenda of the conference would be to discuss a general amnesty and concilliation.
Gandhi met Irwin, the Viceroy of India  on November 23, 1928. The Viceroy rejected the offer given in 'Delhi Statement'.
Later, Gandhi signed Gandhi Irwin Pact in which the above offer were not taken up.



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Saturday, June 13, 2009

Hindustan Socialist Republican Army




Hindustan Socialist Republican Army:
Hindustan Socialist Republican Army was organized in September 1928. It was formed with the members of Hindustan Republic Association whose members were arrested after Kakori Train holdup in August 1925. It brought the members from different states on one single platform. The new members included the name of Bhagat Singh, Ajoy Ghosh and Chandrashekar Azad.



Source: Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Mcmillan, Madras. pp 251


Hindustan Republic Association




Hindustan Republic Association
Hindustan Republic Association was formed in 1924. It was formed by Sachin Sanyal and Jogesh Chandra Chatterji, the Bengalis living in United Province. The association has been made more popular in general text books for Kakori Train hold up in August 1925 which was undertaken to raise funds for the activities of the association.



Source:
Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Mcmillan, Madras. pp 251



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Pathar Dabi 1926




Pathar Dabi 1926
Pathar Dabi is a novel written by Sarat Chandra Chatterji (Devdasa and Parinita). It was published in 1926. It is built around the idea of voilent revolution by urban middle class. It reflects the 20's of twentieth century colonial period India when revolutionary activities had re emerged in form of Hindustan Republic Association.



Source: Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Mcmillan, Madras. pp 251



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MOTHERS & SONS - Nishkriti (Deliverance); Bindur Chale (Bindu's Son); Ramer Sumati (The Compliant Prodigal) - 3 short novels in one Volume

Kirti Kisan Party 1926




Kirti Kisan Party 1926
Kirti Kisan Party was organized in Punjab in 1926. It was headed by Sonhan Singh Josh. It included many Ghadr members of 1914 and members of Babbar Akali Movement of Punjab. It had Kriti as its main journal which was in existence before the formation of the group.



Source: Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Mcmillan, Madras. pp 250



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Peasants and Workers Party 1925-26




Peasants and Workers Party 1925-26
Peasants and Workers Party was organized in Calcutta in 1925-26. It was earlier called Labour-Swaraj Party. It was formed by Muzaffar Ahamd, Nazrul Islam -a famous Poet, Qutubuddin Ahmad, and Hemandtakumar Sarkar.



Source: Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Mcmillan, Madras. pp 250.



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Indian Communist Conference-December 1925




Indian Communist Conference December 1925:
Indian Communist Conference was held in December 1925. According the official view of the Communist Party of India as accepted in 1958, the Conference of 1925 marks the foundation of Communist Party of India.

The Conference was held in Kanpur. It was called after receiving a set back to numerous conspiracy cases like Peshawar Conspiracy Cases, Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy cases against the communism oriented Indians. It was organized by Satyabhakta. Hasrat Mohani, a known poet in pre-independence and and post-independence India was the chariman of the Rception Committee. Singaravely was its President.



Source: Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Mcmillan, Madras. pp 249



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Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy Case 1924




Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy Case 1924
Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy Case tried the emerging leaders supporting communist ideology. Under this trial, Muzaffar Ahmad, S. A. Dange, Shaukat Usmani and Nalini Gupta were jailed in May 1924.
During second decade of the twentieth century, the Imperialist British government ruling over India was highly terrified with the idea of spread of communism in India. Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy Case and Peshwar Conspiracy Case which were five trials were mainly result of that fear factor.



Source: Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Mcmillan, Madras. pp 249,
Dictionary of History of India



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Modern India: 1885-1947A Critique on Colonial IndiaModern India 1885-1947

Peshwar Conspiracy Case (1922-1927)




Peshwar Conspiracy Case (1922-1927)
Peshwar Conspiracy Case was a trial against the muhajirs who had tried to sneak in India from Russia in order to start communist movement in India. There were five cases which continued from 1922 to 1927.



Source: Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Mcmillan, Madras. pp 249



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Girni Kamgar Mahamandal 1923




Girni Kamgar Mahamandal 1923
Girni Kamgar Mahamandal was founded in 1923 by A. A. Alve and G. R. Kasle in Calcutta. It was one of the first organization formed on the ideology of communism in Bengal. A. A. Alve and G. R. Kasle were earlier revolutionaries who had turned to communism later.



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May Day ( First Time in India)




May Day was celebrated in India for the first time in 1923 on the Madras beach. It was celebrated in a rally organized by Singaravelu.



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Jamshedpur Labour Association 1920




Jamshedpur Labour Association 1920:
Jamshedpur Labour Association was started by S. N. Haldar in 1920. It was started with the workers of TATA Steel Industry, Jamshedpur. It was finally recognized by TATA Steel Industry in 1925. C. F. Andrews became its President in 1925. It had invited Gandhi to Jamshedpur wherein the management of the Tata Steel Industry also extended him its hospitality.



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Jharia Conference 1921




Jharia Conference 1921 was a major conference of Labour Movement in India in which there was large scale participation by the Mill workers.



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Pherozeshah Mehta




Pherozeshah Mehta



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Sir Cowasji Jehangir




Sir Cowasji Jehangir



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Thursday, June 11, 2009

Assam Kesari




Assam Kesari
Assam Kesari is the title given to the poet Ambikagiri Roychaudhari



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Padanur Black Hole (Mass Murder)




Padanur Black Hole (Mass Muder)
During the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920-21, the Moplahs in Malabar region also responded to the call of Gandhi for non-cooperation. The contemporary British government in India tried to suppress the rising with repression. It lead to numerous death. It was then, that 66 asphyxiated bodies of Moplah prisoners were found shut in a railway wagon. Some historians have termed it as Padanur Black Hole equating it to Black Hole Tregady of Fort Williams at Calcutta in 1757 reported by Dr. Holwell wherein 144 British people died when they were put in 18 feet by 14 feet room. In that incidence, it was reported that nearly 38 of them survived.



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Maalapalli 1922




Maalapalli
Maalapalli is novel written by Unnava Lakshminaryana in 1922. It is based on the story related to Non-Cooperation Movement in Andhara belt wherein conflict between Gandhian methods and extremist method in form of a social banditry nearing the concept of communist revolution based on international solidarity of toilers.



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Singaravelu Chettiar




Singaravelu Chettiar:
Singaravelu Chettiar was an established senior lawyer in Madras. He discontinued his flourishing practice in response to the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920-1921. However, later he turned to Marxism and he is considered to be the first Communist of the country.



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Thiru Vi Ka




Thiru Vi Ka



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Babar Deva Bariya




Babar Deva Bariya



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Anti-Non-Cooperation Associaton 1920




Anti-Non-Cooperation Association 1920:
The Anti-Non-Cooperation Association 1920 was started by big businessmen of Bombay in 1920 against the Non-Cooperation/Khilafat Movement (1920-1921). It was established by Jamnadas Dwarkadas, Purshottamdas Thaukrdass, Cowasji Jehangir, Pheroze Sethna and Setalvad. The businessmen of Bombay felt that the movement would encourage the labour strikes which in Bombay Presidency turned out be violent at earlier occasion. Secondly, Gandhi did not have that acceptance in Maharashtra region which at that time was still remembered Bal Gangadhar Tilak.



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Sumit Sarkar, Modern India, pp 208



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Monday, June 8, 2009

Origin of Amrita Bazar Patrika




Origin of Amrita Bazar Patrika.
Hari Narayan Ghose of Magura, District Jessore was a reputed rich man of his area. The name of his wife was Amrita. His son, Sisir Kumar Ghose and Moti Lal Ghosh established a Bazar and named it after their mother Amrita as Amrita Bazar. They started a weekly Amrita Bazar Patrika as a rival to Bengalee of Surendranath Banerjee. Soon they made it a daily news paper. It was edited by Moti Lal Ghose who did not have a University qualification but a self taught person. He made Amrita Bazar Patrika more popular by his honest reporting and caustic humour.



Source: Political Agitators in India, A Confidential Report, pp. 15, Available in Digitized form on Archives.org, contributed by Library of University of Toronto, Digitized for Microsoft Corporation by Internet Archive in 2007, provided by University of Toronto, accessed on June 8, 2009 and link at http://www.archive.org/details/politicalagitato00slsnuoft



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Bhupendranath Dutt



Bhupendranath Dutt
Bhupendranath Dutt was born in 1884 in Calcutta. He was brother of Swami Vivekananda (Narendranath ). He was widely read person but could not clear his BA examination. He edited Jugantar for sometime for which he was arrested for sedition and imprisoned for one year on July 24, 1907. He was released in June 1908 but he left India for USA afterwards. He was believed to be a dangerous leader of the revolution in Bengal by the contemporary administration of British Empire in India at Calcutta (Kolkata).




Source: Political Agitators in India, A Confidential Report, Available in Digitized form on Archives.org, contributed by Library, University of Toronto, Digitized for Microsoft Corporation by Internet Archive in 2007, provided by University of Toronto, accessed on June 8, 2009 and link at http://www.archive.org/details/politicalagitato00slsnuoft



Photograph Source: http://www.vivekananda.net/PPlHeKnew/Family/Bhupendranath.html
at www.vivekananda.net



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Anjuman-i-Mohibban-i-Wattan




Anjuman-i-Mohibban-i-Wattan:
It was a society started by Ajit Singh in Punjab. He was an Arya Samajist. He is more identified as the uncle of Martyr Bhagat Singh.
Anjuman-i-Mohibban-Wattan translates to "Society of lovers of their country' in English. It was started on Extremist lines. Under the aegis of this society, Sardar Ajit Singh started an agitation against the increased water rates of Chennab and Bari Doab irrigation canals. He was deported in May 1907 along with Lala Lajpat Rai.



Sources: Sarkar Sumit, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, Macmillan Publication.



Digital Library Source: Internet Archive : Political Agitators in India: Private and Confidential: Contributed to the Internet Archive by University of Tronto as accessed on June 8, 2009. IST 8.23 AM.



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Sunday, June 7, 2009

Samitis Movement






Samitis Movement
Samitis Movement is also called national volunteer movement (Do not confuse it with Rashtriya Swyam Sang). It started somewhere before the Swadeshi Movement which was basically an Anti-Bengal Partition Movement. The membership of Smitis increased with the rise of Swadeshi Movement. They were mainly open bdoies engaged in phusical and moral trainings of the youth of Bengal. They also participated in numerous social welfare activities expecially during antural calamities like spread of epidemics or famines.

According to a police report of 1907, there were 19 Samitis in Clcautta. However, such associations were more active in East Bengal. Accoerding to another police report of June 1907, there were 8485 members voerall, associated with different Samities in East Bengal.

Some of the main Samitis were Anti Circular Soceity of Clacutta, Barisal Swadeshi Bandhave of Aswinkumar Dutt having 170 village branches by 1909, Dacca Anusilan of Pulin Das etc.

Some historians have termed their activities as terrorist activities. It is against the craft of history to transport a concept of one time over to other time. Terrorism as a tool in hands of anomly groups and paradigm belongs to 1960s when the Muslim Brotherhood activities increased the use of arms and bombs. Hence, it is wrong to term the activities before that period in concept of paradigms which developed latter.




Sarkar Sumit, Modern India 1885-1947, 1990, macmillan publication, pp 119-121



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Premtosh Bose

Premtosh Bose
Premtosh Bose was a proprietor of a Printing Press in Calcutta. He was a pioneer labour leader in Bengal Province of British Empire in India. He played an active role in organising a Railwaymen's Union in East Indian Railway in 1906 when Bengal was agitating against the partition of Bengal.

Athanasius Apurbakumar Ghosh

Athanasius Apurbakumar Ghosh
Athanasius Apurbakumar Ghosh was a barrister in Calcutta. He was a pioneer labour leader during the early decades of twentieth century in British Empire in India.



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Prabhatkusum Roychoudhari

Prabhatkusum Roychoudhari
Prbhatkusum Roychoudhari was a barrister in Calcutta. He was a pioneer labour leader during the first decade of twentieth century in Bengal Province of British Empire in India.



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Ashwanicoomer Banerji

Ashwanicoomer Banerji
Ashwanicoomer Banerji was a barrister in Bengal. He was among the pioneer labour leaders of Bengal. He has been reported in an official survey 'Administration of Of Bengal under Andrew Fraser 1903-8' wherein he had been identified as professional agitators.



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Doctrine of Passive Resistance

Doctrine of Passive Resistance
Doctrine of Passive Resistance is authored by Aurobindo Ghosh. It is based on a series of articles by Aurobindo Ghosh which were published in April 1907 in the journal Bande Matram. The articles were written when the Bengal was burning with indignation after its partition October 16, 1905 by Viceroy Curzon. The main theme of the articles is the methods and ideology which could be adopted in face of oppression and injustice as perpetrated by the contemporary British rule in India.

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External Links: Yogic Equality: The Foundation of Sadhana: Words of Sri Aurbindo and The Mother
Poetic Plays of Sri Aurbindo

Swadesh Bandhav Samiti

Swadesh Bandhav Samiti



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Dawn Society

Dawn Society
Dawn Society was established by Satishchandra Mukherji during the Swadeshi Movement against the partition of Bengal during the tenure of Lord Curzon as the Viceroy of the British Indian Empire. It was a progressive and constructive response different from the mendicant methods of protests of the Moderates generally identified with the members of the Indian National Congress. Under the society, Satishchandra Mukherji started educational institutions which aimed at imparting education to the Indians who were encouraged to leave the government or government aided schools and colleges as a protest against the parititon of Bengal.



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Louis Dane's Mission

Louis Dane's Mission:
Louis Dane's Mission was a diplomatic mission to Afghanistan under direction of Lord Curzon who Viceroy of India. India was under the imperial rule of Great Britain. It was an attempt of Viceroy of India to direct the foreign policy around South Asia from Calcutta, which was seat of power in British Indian Empire.



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Justify Full

Praja Mithra Mandali




Praja Mithra Mandali



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C. R. Reddi




C. R. Reddi



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E. V. Ramaswamy Naicker

E. V. Ramaswamy Naicker



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Nadar Mahajan Sangam 1910

Nadar Mahajan Sangam 1910



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Praja Movement

Praja Movement



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Saturday, June 6, 2009

Kunvarji Mehta

Kunvarji Mehta



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Raj Kumar Shukla

Raj Kumar Shukla



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Bijolia Movement

Bijolia Movement:
It was a pioneer agrarian movement in the Mewar State in present Udaipur District.

The Jagirdar of Bijolia was a Parmar Rajput having 96 villages in his jagir. There were 86 different taxes on peasants against which peasants revolted in 1905. The initial leadership was provided by Sitaram Das. The movement got linked to national movement. Vijay (Bijoy) Singh Pathik and Manik Lal Verma (future Chief Minister of Rajasthan) led a no tax movement in 1916. It was called Bijolia movement. The peasants refused to do begar and held back the taxes. The movement continued through 1920s and spread over to other States of Rajputana.

Important note: The no tax movement at Bijolia took place before the Champaran Indigo Satyagraha of Gandhi. Secondly, it was started in Princely States.



Source: Mainly Sumit Sarkar and multiple sources through net and digital libraries.



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Edit Reprot:
05.07.2010: html edit. added to Manik Lal Verma


Peasants' Movements in Post-Colonial IndiaAgrarian Problems and Peasant Movements in Latin America.


Manik Lal Verma

Manik Lal Verma



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Bhoop Singh alias Vijay Singh Pathik

Bhoop Singh alias Vijay Singh Pathik



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Sitaram Dass (Peasant Revolt)

Sitaram Dass (Peasant Revolt)



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Govind Guru

Govind Guru



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Jatra Bhagat

Jatra Bhagat:




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Alluri Sitram Raju

Alluri Sitram Raju





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Arandhan

Arandhan:
Arandhan is a rite of mourning. The hearth is not lit. The food is not prepared. Nothing is kept on fire for boiling or baking in the house. Thus, the rite is performed.

This custom was made the mode of protest during the Bengal partition. It was adopted along with Rakhi Bandhan and Boycott. It was suggested by Ramendrasunder Trivedi. The Rakhi Bandhan was suggested by Rabindranath Tagore.

The method of protest in form of Boycott, Rakhi Bandhan and Arandhan was a new dimension in the freedom struggle of India. It was adopted in case of anti-Bengal partition movement. However, it added a new dimension to the moderate’s mode of protest which were meeting, memorandum, petitions and pamphlet publishing. They are mostly interpreted by historians as sign of the rise of Extremist mode of protest in the Moderate form of politics which is mostly termed as a mendicant approach of the earlier political leaders mostly associated with Indian National Congress.

The historians have also identified it with another trend in India’s freedom of struggle. They have interpreted and tried to show that the mass mobilization was undertaken through an appeal to religious practices. For that, they present Rakhi Bandhan and Arandhan as the Hindu religious practices as a case studies. They argue that it became the cause of Hindu Muslim divide on religious basis. This set of argument is mainly promoted by Marxist and among them Subaltern and Grmascian Historians. They either begin with this argument and substantiate it with the class divide paradigm which permeated the Muslim and Hindu society in Bengal (especially East Bengal). The same way of interpretation in arrangement of arguments, first identify that class divide among Hindu and Muslim on economic basis and then argue that it was consolidated when Hindu customs were made the symbols during protest against the executive acts of the Colonial rulers. In either of the set of logic, they try to conclude that adoption of Rakhi Bandhan and Arandhan were the main cause of limited appeal of the Wang-Bang Movement. They argue that by 1909, all the political practices which had been later identified with Gandhian mode of political protests had been practiced during this time but such religious customs as symbols in form of protest symbol for raising a mass movement reduced the impact of Bengal movement and as such made it merely a local movement.




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Tuesday, June 2, 2009

Younghusband Expedition (1903-1904)

Younghusband Expedition (1903-1904)

The Younghusband Expedition (1903-1904) is also known as the British Expedition to Tibet (1903-1904).





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British Expedition to Tibet at Wikipedia

Itihasik Khoj


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