Monday, January 26, 2009

Shadhdarshana or Darshana

The Shadhdarshana means the six Doctrines or the Six systems of Salvation or the Six Schools of Philosophies of Hinduism. They are as follows.

Sr. noName of the DoctrineName of the Rishi/Apostle
1Nayaya:AnalysisAkshapada Gautama
2Vaisheshika: Doctrine of Individual CharateristicsUluka Kanada
3Sankhya: The CountKapila
4Yoga: Now Most popular in West as a school of physical discipliningPatanjali
5Mimansa: EnquiryJamini
6 Vedanta, also Uttara MimansaShankaracharya

Dus Avataras of Vishnu

The Dus Avataras of Vishnu means the ten incarnations of Vishnus as per Hindu religion mythology. They are given below

Sr. no. Hindi Name Probable English Term
1MatsyaThe Fish
2KurmaThe Tortoise
3VarahaThe Boar
4NarasimhaThe Man Lion
5VamanThe Dwarf
6ParasuramaRama with the Axe
7RamaRaghukul Prince Rama of Ayodhya
8KrishnaKing Krishna of Dwarka of Vrishni Tribe
9BudhaPrince Sidhardha
10KalkinIn incarnation yet to come

Sunday, January 25, 2009


Vedangas are treatises which form the part of Vedic literature. They are six in number. The etymological meaning of Vedanga means limbs of Vedas. It suggests that they are helpful in understanding the Vedas. It is written by an established scholar that ‘the study of Vedanga was necessary either for the reading, the understanding, or the proper sacrificial employment of the Veda.’ Hence, these six limbs or the six treatise or the six subjects are necessary for fully understanding the Vedas which are Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sam Veda and Atharva Veda.

Further, R. C. Majumdar, specifically emphasis that they should not be taken as mere six books but the six subjects which are to be understood to appreciate the contents of the Vedas. It should be further remembered that they are treatises. It means that they are work of the intellect and memory of human beings. They are product of the use of human faculties.

These six treatises are:
  1. Sikhsha (pronunciation)

  2. Chhandas (metre)
  3. Vyakarana (grammar)
  4. Nirukta (explanation of words; etymology)
  5. Jyotisha (astronomy {Kindly note, not the astrology as it is generally believed. That is other thing, that it is latter used for astrology far more than for executing Vedic ceremonies.})
  6. Kalpa (ceremonial).

R. C. Majumdar has emphasised that
the first two are considered necessary for reading the Veda, the two next for understanding it, and the last two for employing it at sacrifices.

Therefore, it means that Sikhsha and Chhandas, that are metre and grammar are used for reading the Veda. They are used merely for reading. The Vyakrana and Nirukta, that are grammar and etymology, are used for understanding the Vedas. Finally, Jyotisha and Kalpa, that are astronomy and ceremonial involve the operational aspect, action aspect, the activity aspect of the Vedas.

Source Used: Majumdar, R. C., ‘Ancient History’.

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Friday, January 23, 2009

Mahajanapadas (List)

According to Anguttara Nikaya, a Buddhist source, the followings were the sixteen Mahajanapadas.
  1. Anga
  2. Magadha
  3. Kashi
  4. Kosala
  5. Vajji
  6. Malla
  7. Chedi
  8. Vatsa
  9. Kuru
  10. Panchala
  11. Matsya
  12. Sursena
  13. Assaks
  14. Avanti
  15. Gandhara
  16. Kamboja

According to Bhagwati Sutra, a Jain Source, the followings were the sixteen Mahajanapadas.
  1. Anga
  2. Banga (Vanga)
  3. Magadha
  4. Malaya
  5. Malava
  6. Achchha
  7. Vachcha
  8. Kachchha
  9. Padhan (Pandy) (Vatsa)
  10. Ladha (Lata)
  11. Sajji (Vajji)
  12. Moli (Malla)
  13. Kasi
  14. Kosala
  15. Avaha
  16. Sambhuttara

Saturday, January 10, 2009

Ananda Ranga Pillai

Joseph Fran├žois Dupleix

Anglo French Conflict in India

In eighteenth century India, English and French trading companies competed and fought with each other in India for the control over the trade and political power in India. It is generally called the Anglo French Conflict in India.

The conflict between English and French Trading companies went through four phases. In first three phases, the trading companies of France and England fought three wars on the land of India. Those three wars are recorded in Indian history as three Karnataka war or merely Karnataka wars. The first Karnataka War was fought between 1746 and 1748. It ended with Aix-la Chapella treaty which was signed between England and France in 1748 in Europe. The second Karnataka war was fought between 1749 and 1754. It ended in the Treaty of Pondicherry signed in 1754. The third Karnataka war was fought between 1758 and 1763. It ended with the Treaty of Peace of Paris.

In the fourth phase, which extended from 1778 to 1815, the French tried to eliminate the British by helping the native rulers like of Nizam of Hyderabad, Tipu of Mysore and the Maratha Chiefs by training their armies on the European model. The French officers also tried to train the army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore.

The above contest or conflict must be understood in context of the European history. Britain and France did not have good relations between them on European continent. However, the European trading companies trading in India being ruled by Mughals, especially the French and British companies, maintained very cordial relations among themselves in India while trading. They readily cooperated and coordinated in their trading activities over the Indian land. However, during Karnataka war, the British and French trading compaies fought when France and Britain fought in Europe. Secondly, all through the period of Karnataka war, though they had actively interfere in Indian and Mughal court politics, they remained under the hollow of the might of the Mughals. It was only after Battle of Buxar, the English Company became confident of itself. By then, it had already beaten the French company in India.

The Karnataka wars established that among the European trading countries in India, England Trading company was supreme.

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