Sunday, December 14, 2008

Bahadur Shah II (Mughal Emperor)

Akbar II (Mughal Emperor)

Shah Alam (Mughal Emperor)

Alamgir II (Mughal Emperor)

Ahmad Shah (Mughal Emperor)

Muhammad Shah (Rangila)

Rafi-ud-Daula

Rafi-ud-Darajat

Farukh Siyar

Jahandar Shah I

Bahadur Shah I

Wednesday, December 10, 2008

LATER MUGHALS (CHRONOLOGY)


Sr.no.EmperorTenure
1Bahadur Shah I1707-12
2Jahandar Shah I1712-1713
3Farukh Siyar1713-1719
4Rafi-ud-DarajatFeburary to June 1719
5Rafi-ud-DaulaJune to September 1719
6Muhammad Shah (Rangila-A Gay)1719-1748
7Ahmad Shah1748-1754
8Alamgir II1754-1759
9Shah Alam1759-1806
10Akbar II1806-37
11Bahadur Shah II1837-1857(died in Rangoon in 1862)

Sunday, November 16, 2008

The Regulating Act 1773

The Regulating Act was passed by Lord North’s Government in 1773. It was designed to remove the evils inherent in the Company’s constitution and to give an orderly and efficient government to its territories in India. This object of the Act was made explicit by Lord North (Prime Minister of Great Britain during the period when American War of Independence took place),[1] himself in these significant words: “Every article in it is framed with a view to the placing the affairs of the Company on a solid, clear and decisive establishment.” The Act also provided the basis of the Anglo-Indian Constitution.
Lord North
The Bill for this act was introduced by Lord North on May 18, 1773. It is therefore also called Lord North’s Bill. Lord North ‘emphasised the need of placing the Company’s affairs on a solid, clear and decisive establishment.’ It is important to note that before this Bill, by an act of 1767 of  the British Parliament, the Company had committed to pay £ 400000 to the Exchequer of British Government for ‘for the privilege of retaining its territorial and revenues’ in India.

However, the Bill received strong opposition from different quarters. Mr. Edmun Burke considered the bill as an undue Parliamentary intervention against the spirit of the laws, linter ties and constitution of British nation. ‘He denounced the Bill as an infringement of national right, national faith and national justice.’ The directors of East India also feared the motives of the Bill. They straightaway accused that it was an attempt of Lord North to annihilate the company and finally transfer of its ownership to the Crown. “The city of London also protested against it on the ground that the privileges of the city of London enjoyed stand on the same security as those of the East Indian Company.’ However, the bill was passed and called the Regulating Act of 1773. Another act was also passed along with Regulating Act under which, £ 1400000 at the rate of 4% was released to the East India Company to it relieve it of its financial difficulties.

The Regulating Act was a very long document. It remodelled the Company’s constitution as it existed in working in London and also introduced important changes in the government of its Indian possession.



Sources: Sikri S. L., A Constitutional History of India, S. Nagina & Company, Jullundhar, 1966.



External Links:
Lord North (Wikipedia, for Photograph also)


A Sketch of the History of the East-India Company,: From Its First Formation to the Passing of the Regulating Act of 1773 With a Summary View of the Changes ... Internal Administration of British India.

Friday, November 7, 2008

The Vakatakas

Mihirkula

Tormana

Skanda Gupta I

Kumara Gupta I

Chandragupta II Vikramaditya

Rama Gupta

Samudragupta Parakramanka

Chandragupta I

Ghatotkacha Gupta

Sri Gupta

Thursday, November 6, 2008

The Guptas

Nava Naga

The Nagas

Vasudeva I

Kanishka II

Huvishka

Vasishka

Kanishka I

Kaphises II

Kadphises I

The Kushanas

Rudradamana Saka

The Pahlavas

The Sakas

Menander

Vasishthiputra Siri Satakarni Satavahana

Vashishthiputra Sami-Siri-Pulumayi Satavahana

Hala Satavahana

Gautamiputra Siri Satakarni Satavahana

Satakarni II Satavahana

Nayanika Satavahana

Satakarni I Satavahana

Krishna Satavahana

Simuka Satavahana

The Satavahanas

The Kanvas

Kharvela the King

Sumitra Sunga

Sujyeshtha Sunga

Agnimitra Sunga

Pushyamitra Sunga

The Sungas

The Nirgranthas

The Ajivikas

Parivrajaka

The Lokayata

Jalauka Maurya

Kunala Maurya

Mahendra Maurya

Tivara Maurya

Asoka

Bindusara

Chandragupta Mauyra

Dhana Nanda

Mahapadma Nanda

The Nandas

Udyain

Ajatasatru

Bimbisara, the first Historic Emperor of India

Bimbisara, according to Buddhist source, "Mahavamsa" ruled from 544 BC to 493 BC. According to Mahavamsa, the Buddhist source, he belonged to Haryanka dynasty. The capital of his empire was Rajgriha. He can be called the founder of Magadha Empire in true sense. Earlier, Magadha was merely a Mahajanapada wherein Kasi, Kosala and Avanti were far more powerful rules than Magadha. He was the first ruler to adopt the marriage as the foreign policy for spread the territories of his empire. He married Kasaladevi, the daughter of the king of Kosala. Kosaladevi was the sister of Prasenjit. Prasenjit had given Kasi in dowry to her sister Kasaladevi when she was married to Biimbisara. Hence, Kasi, Kosala and Magadha became a strong alliance during that period.

Bimbisara also married Chellana, the daughter of Lichchavi king Chetak.

Khema, the princess of Bhadra Desh (Western Punjab: East of Satulj) was the third wife of Bimbisara.

His fourth wife was Vaidhai Vasavi.

Darsaka, Kunika and Ajatsatru were his known and popular sons.


Bimbisara also used the policy of sword to extend his empire. He conquered Anga and killed the King Brahmadatta, ruler of Anga.

He maintained friendly relation with Avanti.

It is believed that his son Ajatsatru was highly impatient to ascend the throne of Magadha during the lifetime of Bimbisara. Ajatsatru imprisoned his father, King Bimbisara. Later, he repented but by that time, Bimbisara committed suicide.



Status: Subjected to revision.


External Links and References:


Sisunaga (Version One)

The Saisunaga Dynasty

The Brihadrathas

The Haryanka Dyansty

Vasu

Vasu was father of Brihadratha, the earliest emperor of India. Vasu was also the founder of Girivraja. Girivraja was also called Vasumati. Later, it became the famous as Rajgriha.

Girivraja

Girivraja was the capital of the earliest dynasty of Magadha. It was also called Rajgriha. The other name of Girivraja was Vasumati. Vasu, the father the earliest Emperor of India, Brihadaratha.

Brihadratha

Brihadratha was the founder of the earliest dynasty of Magadha. His father was Vasu. Brihadratha was father of Jarasandha.

Sunday, November 2, 2008

A Nation in the Making

It is a book written by Surendra Nath Banerjea, the India Nationalist, founder of Indian Association and the Indian National Congress.

Commenting on the contents of the book, P. Sitaramayya wrote, “For command of language, for elegance of diction, for a reich imagery, for emotional heights, for a spirit of manly challenge, his orations are hard to beat. They remain unapproachable.”

Surendra Nath Banerjea was also the Editor of Bengalee.



Editing Report:




Suggestive External online Sources:




Sources Used:





External Sources:The Trumpet Voice of India. Speeches of Surendranath Banerjea Delivered in England, 1909
A nation in making;: Being the reminiscences of fifty years of public life

Saturday, November 1, 2008

Dr Rajendra Prasad

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

Mulana Abul Kalam Azad










Photograph Source: Wikipedia




Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

Motilal Nehru

Gopal Krishna Gokhale

Saraswati Ramabai

Mrs Annie Besant

Swami Shraddhanand

Sir Pherozeshah Mehta

Mahadev Govind Ranade

Lala Lajpat Rai

Bipin Chandra Pal

Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Surendra Nath Banerjea


Surendra Nath Banerjea was born in 1848. He belonged to a Kulin Brahmin famSurendra Nath Banerjea taken from Wikipediaily of Calcutta. His father, Durga Charan Banerjea was a successful medical practitioner. He joined the Indian Civil Services through an open competition in the year 1868. However, he was dismissed from the services because of racialist consideration of the British government of the time and progressive nationalistic views of Surendera Nath Banerjea. He then joined as a Professor of English in Metropolitan Institute at Calcutta. He founded Ripon College in Calcutta. Later he took over the Bengalee Weekly and made it a daily newspaper. It is in journalism that he established his stature as a leading voice of India. He also wrote a book “A Nation in the Making” about which P Sitaramayya writes: “For command of language, for elegance of diction, for rich imagery, for emotional heights, for a spirit of manly claming, his orations are hard to beat. They remain unapproachable.”

He is considered as a pioneer of undertaking constitutional agitations and public opinion making in India. He undertook a political mobilization in a movement against reducing the age for Civil Services Entrance test from 21 to 19. For that, he undertook tours of whole country to make the public opinion which was a new activity to be experienced by Indians.

Later he founded Indian Association in 1876. He was one of the founder of The Indian National Congress founded in 1885. However, he did not attend the first conference of the INC. He headed the sessions of Indian National Congress in 1898 and 1902.

He was elected to the Imperial Legislative Council in 1892. He was a supporter of Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms of 1919. He joined as the Ministry of Bengal under the Dyarchy system established by the Indian Act of 1919.

He disassociated himself from Indian National Congress in 1918 and form the National Liberal Federation.

He was in favour of getting benefit from the British Rule for India.

He died in 1925.


Edit Report:


Further References available online:


Core Sources Used:
For Photograph: Wikipedia



External Sources:The Trumpet Voice of India. Speeches of Surendranath Banerjea Delivered in England, 1909
Speeches of Babu Surendra Nath Banerjea, 1876-80
A nation in making;: Being the reminiscences of fifty years of public life
An explanatory analysis of the Law of criminal procedure in India (Act V of 1898);: Intended for students for various law examinations and prepared under special instructions of Dr. Jadu Nath Kanjilal


Dadabhai Naoroji

Thursday, October 23, 2008

Bharatvarsha

According to the Vishnu Purana,"The country that lies north of the ocean and the south of the snowy munatains is called Bharat for there dwell the descendants of the Bharat."

In Sanskrit, as per Vishnu Purana,
Uttaram yastsamundrasya,
Himadres Haiva dakshinain
Vaisham tad Bharatam nama
Bharatiyatia santatih.
In other words, it is stated that the subcontinent of India stretches from the Himalayas to the sea. It is known as Bharatvarsha, or the land of Bharat where the descendants of Bharata live.

Bharata was a king highly praised in Puranas.

As per the contents of various Puranas, Bharatvarsh was a land which formed the part of a larger unit called Jambu-dvipa. Bharatvarsha on Jambu-divipa (the continent) was considered to be the innermost of the seven concentric islands or the continents into which the earth, as conceived in the Puranas, was supposed to have been divided.In epics and some of the Purana, the whole Jambu-divpa is called the Bharatvarsha.

According to one other interpretation, varsham means country and thus Bhartavarsha means the country of Bharata or the country of the descendants of Bharata, son of Dushyant and Shakuntla and nurtured by Rishi Kanva.



Defined by Raja Rammohun Roy, a poliglot and an Indian Reformer in his published track titled, "Exposition of the Practical Operation of the Judicial and Revenue System of India, and of the General Character and Conditioin of its Native Inhabitants, as submitted in Evidence to the Authorities in England, with Notes and Illustrations. Also a brief preliminary sketch of the Ancient and Modern Boundaries, and of the History of that country.", published by Smith, Elder and Co., Cornhill, London, 1832. (1832, the year of death of Raja Rammohun Roy)

The Explanation is extracted as follows from the section Preliminary Remarks, page v and vi. (Note: It is verbatim reproduction wherein the spellings as they appeared in their has been retained)


"India, anciently called the “Bharat Varsha” after the name of a monarch called “Bharat” is bound on its south by the sea; on east partly by this sea, and partly by ranges of mountains, separating it from the ancient China, or rather the countries now called Assam, Cassay and Arracan; on the north by a lofty and extensive chain of mountains which divides it from Tibet; on the west partly by the ranges of mountains, separating India from the ancient Persia, and extending towards the Western Sea, above the mouth of the Indus, and partly by this sea itself. It lies between the 8th and 35th degrees north latitude, and the 67th and 93d degrees of east longitude.

In the foot notes, Raja Rammohun Roy had remarked as follows:

Vaarshaa implies a large tract of continent cut off from other countries by natural boundaries, such as oceans, mountains, or extensive deserts.

Further, on Bharat he wrote,

“Bharat” a humane and powerful prince, suppose to have sprung from the “Indu-Bangs” or lunar race.

Raja Rammohun Roy had excluded the territories east of Bhramputra river, starting from Assam from the territories of India as given in his report. However, he had given following substantiating note about the exclusion of the territories both on the east and west.
He writes;
“The boundary mountains are interrupted on the east between 90 degree and 91 degree East. and latitude 26 degree and 27 degree North. Hence the countries to the east of the Burrampooter, as Assam, Ava, Siam, &c as far as 102 degree east longitude, are by some authors considered as part of India, though beyond its natural limits; and by European writers usually called ‘India Beyond Ganges’. There, relics of Sanscrit literature, and remains of Hindu temples are still found. Other ancient writers, however, considered these countries as attached to China, the inhabitants having greater resemblance to the Chinese in their features.

The western boundary mountains are in like manner broken at Longitude 70 degree East, and at Latitude 34 degree North. Consequently the countries beyond that natural limit, such as Caubul and Candhar, are supposed by some to be included in India, and by others in Persia. But many Hindu antiquities still exist there to corroborate the former notion. Not only the northern boundaries of mountains of India, but also those mountains which form the eastern and western limits of it, are by the ancient writers of India termed Himalaya, and considered branches of that great chain. “In north direction is situated the prince of mountains, the ‘immortal Himalaya’ which immerse both in the eastern and western seas, stands on earth as a standard of measure (or line of demarcation).” Cali Das.”

Acknowledgement following the fair use rule on the internet
:

The following book is available as Full View book and permitted to be downloaded as PDF on www.books.google.com.



Additional Note with Reference
Bharatvarsha is divided into nine Khandas or parts: Indra-dvipa, Kaserumat, Taamra varna Gabhastimat, Naga-dwipa, Saumya, Gandharva and Varuna. (Source: A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and Religion by John Dowson, Rupa and Co. New Delhi)




The above post is reposting of http://ugc-net-history.blogspot.com/2005/10/bharatvarsha.html



External Links
1. Wikipedia Article: Bharat
Comment: Useful, contains reference to the term Bharatvarsh which however does not add much to that already given above. Visit Recommended
2. Books Google for Raja Rammouhan Roy book as mentioned above.



Edit Report:
Reviewed and Checked: July 4, 2009.
Added Reference of Wikipedia under External Links. July 4, 2009.
Added a note from Raja Rammohun Roy book.
May 2, 2010: Added elaboration on the term Bhartvarsha.




The Rig Veda: Complete (Forgotten Books)Wisdom of the Vedas (Theosophical Heritage Classics)The Rig Veda (Penguin Classics)The Holy VedasThe Rig-VedaThe Upanishads (Classic of Indian Spirituality)Commentaries on the Vedas, the Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita: The Three Branches of India's Life-TreeHymns from the Vedas and Upanishads, Vedic ChantsInitiation to the VedasThe Atharvaveda (Forgotten Books)Hymns of the Samaveda (Forgotten Books)The Vishnu Purana, Book 1 of 6: A System of Hindu Mythology and Tradition (Forgotten Books)Vishnu PuranaThe Vishnu Purana: A System of Hindu Mythology and TraditionThe Vishnu Purana V3: A System Of Hindu Mythology And Tradition (1866)The Vishnu Purana, Volume 2The Vishnu PuránaThe Vishnu Purana, Volume 1

Itihasik Khoj


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