Sunday, November 16, 2008

The Regulating Act 1773

The Regulating Act was passed by Lord North’s Government in 1773. It was designed to remove the evils inherent in the Company’s constitution and to give an orderly and efficient government to its territories in India. This object of the Act was made explicit by Lord North (Prime Minister of Great Britain during the period when American War of Independence took place),[1] himself in these significant words: “Every article in it is framed with a view to the placing the affairs of the Company on a solid, clear and decisive establishment.” The Act also provided the basis of the Anglo-Indian Constitution.
Lord North
The Bill for this act was introduced by Lord North on May 18, 1773. It is therefore also called Lord North’s Bill. Lord North ‘emphasised the need of placing the Company’s affairs on a solid, clear and decisive establishment.’ It is important to note that before this Bill, by an act of 1767 of  the British Parliament, the Company had committed to pay £ 400000 to the Exchequer of British Government for ‘for the privilege of retaining its territorial and revenues’ in India.

However, the Bill received strong opposition from different quarters. Mr. Edmun Burke considered the bill as an undue Parliamentary intervention against the spirit of the laws, linter ties and constitution of British nation. ‘He denounced the Bill as an infringement of national right, national faith and national justice.’ The directors of East India also feared the motives of the Bill. They straightaway accused that it was an attempt of Lord North to annihilate the company and finally transfer of its ownership to the Crown. “The city of London also protested against it on the ground that the privileges of the city of London enjoyed stand on the same security as those of the East Indian Company.’ However, the bill was passed and called the Regulating Act of 1773. Another act was also passed along with Regulating Act under which, £ 1400000 at the rate of 4% was released to the East India Company to it relieve it of its financial difficulties.

The Regulating Act was a very long document. It remodelled the Company’s constitution as it existed in working in London and also introduced important changes in the government of its Indian possession.



Sources: Sikri S. L., A Constitutional History of India, S. Nagina & Company, Jullundhar, 1966.



External Links:
Lord North (Wikipedia, for Photograph also)


A Sketch of the History of the East-India Company,: From Its First Formation to the Passing of the Regulating Act of 1773 With a Summary View of the Changes ... Internal Administration of British India.

Friday, November 7, 2008

The Vakatakas

Mihirkula

Tormana

Skanda Gupta I

Kumara Gupta I

Chandragupta II Vikramaditya

Rama Gupta

Samudragupta Parakramanka

Chandragupta I

Ghatotkacha Gupta

Sri Gupta

Thursday, November 6, 2008

The Guptas

Nava Naga

The Nagas

Vasudeva I

Kanishka II

Huvishka

Vasishka

Kanishka I

Kaphises II

Kadphises I

The Kushanas

Rudradamana Saka

The Pahlavas

The Sakas

Menander

Vasishthiputra Siri Satakarni Satavahana

Vashishthiputra Sami-Siri-Pulumayi Satavahana

Hala Satavahana

Gautamiputra Siri Satakarni Satavahana

Satakarni II Satavahana

Nayanika Satavahana

Satakarni I Satavahana

Krishna Satavahana

Simuka Satavahana

The Satavahanas

The Kanvas

Kharvela the King

Sumitra Sunga

Sujyeshtha Sunga

Agnimitra Sunga

Pushyamitra Sunga

The Sungas

The Nirgranthas

The Ajivikas

Parivrajaka

The Lokayata

Jalauka Maurya

Kunala Maurya

Mahendra Maurya

Tivara Maurya

Asoka

Bindusara

Chandragupta Mauyra

Dhana Nanda

Mahapadma Nanda

The Nandas

Udyain

Ajatasatru

Bimbisara, the first Historic Emperor of India

Bimbisara, according to Buddhist source, "Mahavamsa" ruled from 544 BC to 493 BC. According to Mahavamsa, the Buddhist source, he belonged to Haryanka dynasty. The capital of his empire was Rajgriha. He can be called the founder of Magadha Empire in true sense. Earlier, Magadha was merely a Mahajanapada wherein Kasi, Kosala and Avanti were far more powerful rules than Magadha. He was the first ruler to adopt the marriage as the foreign policy for spread the territories of his empire. He married Kasaladevi, the daughter of the king of Kosala. Kosaladevi was the sister of Prasenjit. Prasenjit had given Kasi in dowry to her sister Kasaladevi when she was married to Biimbisara. Hence, Kasi, Kosala and Magadha became a strong alliance during that period.

Bimbisara also married Chellana, the daughter of Lichchavi king Chetak.

Khema, the princess of Bhadra Desh (Western Punjab: East of Satulj) was the third wife of Bimbisara.

His fourth wife was Vaidhai Vasavi.

Darsaka, Kunika and Ajatsatru were his known and popular sons.


Bimbisara also used the policy of sword to extend his empire. He conquered Anga and killed the King Brahmadatta, ruler of Anga.

He maintained friendly relation with Avanti.

It is believed that his son Ajatsatru was highly impatient to ascend the throne of Magadha during the lifetime of Bimbisara. Ajatsatru imprisoned his father, King Bimbisara. Later, he repented but by that time, Bimbisara committed suicide.



Status: Subjected to revision.


External Links and References:


Sisunaga (Version One)

The Saisunaga Dynasty

The Brihadrathas

The Haryanka Dyansty

Vasu

Vasu was father of Brihadratha, the earliest emperor of India. Vasu was also the founder of Girivraja. Girivraja was also called Vasumati. Later, it became the famous as Rajgriha.

Girivraja

Girivraja was the capital of the earliest dynasty of Magadha. It was also called Rajgriha. The other name of Girivraja was Vasumati. Vasu, the father the earliest Emperor of India, Brihadaratha.

Brihadratha

Brihadratha was the founder of the earliest dynasty of Magadha. His father was Vasu. Brihadratha was father of Jarasandha.

Sunday, November 2, 2008

A Nation in the Making

It is a book written by Surendra Nath Banerjea, the India Nationalist, founder of Indian Association and the Indian National Congress.

Commenting on the contents of the book, P. Sitaramayya wrote, “For command of language, for elegance of diction, for a reich imagery, for emotional heights, for a spirit of manly challenge, his orations are hard to beat. They remain unapproachable.”

Surendra Nath Banerjea was also the Editor of Bengalee.



Editing Report:




Suggestive External online Sources:




Sources Used:





External Sources:The Trumpet Voice of India. Speeches of Surendranath Banerjea Delivered in England, 1909
A nation in making;: Being the reminiscences of fifty years of public life

Saturday, November 1, 2008

Dr Rajendra Prasad

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

Mulana Abul Kalam Azad










Photograph Source: Wikipedia




Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

Motilal Nehru

Gopal Krishna Gokhale

Saraswati Ramabai

Mrs Annie Besant

Swami Shraddhanand

Sir Pherozeshah Mehta

Mahadev Govind Ranade

Lala Lajpat Rai

Bipin Chandra Pal

Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Surendra Nath Banerjea


Surendra Nath Banerjea was born in 1848. He belonged to a Kulin Brahmin famSurendra Nath Banerjea taken from Wikipediaily of Calcutta. His father, Durga Charan Banerjea was a successful medical practitioner. He joined the Indian Civil Services through an open competition in the year 1868. However, he was dismissed from the services because of racialist consideration of the British government of the time and progressive nationalistic views of Surendera Nath Banerjea. He then joined as a Professor of English in Metropolitan Institute at Calcutta. He founded Ripon College in Calcutta. Later he took over the Bengalee Weekly and made it a daily newspaper. It is in journalism that he established his stature as a leading voice of India. He also wrote a book “A Nation in the Making” about which P Sitaramayya writes: “For command of language, for elegance of diction, for rich imagery, for emotional heights, for a spirit of manly claming, his orations are hard to beat. They remain unapproachable.”

He is considered as a pioneer of undertaking constitutional agitations and public opinion making in India. He undertook a political mobilization in a movement against reducing the age for Civil Services Entrance test from 21 to 19. For that, he undertook tours of whole country to make the public opinion which was a new activity to be experienced by Indians.

Later he founded Indian Association in 1876. He was one of the founder of The Indian National Congress founded in 1885. However, he did not attend the first conference of the INC. He headed the sessions of Indian National Congress in 1898 and 1902.

He was elected to the Imperial Legislative Council in 1892. He was a supporter of Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms of 1919. He joined as the Ministry of Bengal under the Dyarchy system established by the Indian Act of 1919.

He disassociated himself from Indian National Congress in 1918 and form the National Liberal Federation.

He was in favour of getting benefit from the British Rule for India.

He died in 1925.


Edit Report:


Further References available online:


Core Sources Used:
For Photograph: Wikipedia



External Sources:The Trumpet Voice of India. Speeches of Surendranath Banerjea Delivered in England, 1909
Speeches of Babu Surendra Nath Banerjea, 1876-80
A nation in making;: Being the reminiscences of fifty years of public life
An explanatory analysis of the Law of criminal procedure in India (Act V of 1898);: Intended for students for various law examinations and prepared under special instructions of Dr. Jadu Nath Kanjilal


Dadabhai Naoroji

Itihasik Khoj


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